Landsat Missions

Glossary and Acronyms

You are here



Glossary: Includes terms related to the Landsat Project.


Acquisition - (1) An image captured by a satellite sensor. (2) The process of searching for and locking onto a received signal.

Acquisition Date - The date the image was acquired. Format: YYYY/MM/DD

Acquisition of Signal - The time a site receives a signal from a spacecraft.

Algorithm - In the context of remote sensing, algorithms generally specify how to determine higher-level data products from lower-level source data. For example, algorithms prescribe how atmospheric temperature and moisture profiles are determined from a set of radiation observations originally sensed by satellite sounding instruments.

Altitude - The angle, in degrees, above the level horizon where an object in the sky appears (the height in space).

Analog - A form of transmitting information characterized by continuously variable quantities, as opposed to digital transmission, which is characterized by discrete bits of information in numerical steps. An analog signal is used to transmit audio (such as voice, radio, stereo, and control tones) and is responsive to changes in light, sound, heat and pressure.

Analog-to-Digital Conversion - The process of converting analog signals to a digital representation.

Anomoly - (1) A deviation from the norm. (2) The angular distance between the position of a planet and its last perihelion (point nearest to the sun), or between that of a satellite and its last perigee (point nearest to the center of the earth).

Antenna - A device for transmitting and receiving radio waves.

Aperture - The diameter of an opening; the diameter of the primary lens or mirror of a telescope. A cross-sectional area of the antenna that is exposed to the satellite signal.

Ascending Node (AN) - Direction a satellite is traveling relative to the Equator. An ascending node implies a northbound Equatorial crossing.

Asychronous - Not synchronized.

Attitude - The angular orientation of a remote sensing system with respect to a geographical reference system. The orientation of the sensor along with information about the accuracy and precision with which this orientation is known. This data is required to perform proper calibration of instrument data. The attitude is usually stored in Euler angle or quaternion form and may be 1) calculated by the on-board computer and telemetered to the ground or 2) calculated by ground processing facilities using a variety of attitude sensor data.

Band (channel) - A slice of wavelengths from the electromagnetic spectrum. Landsat ETM+ has eight bands that collect radiation from different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Of the eight bands, three bands are visible light, one band is panchromatic, three bands are infrared, and one band is thermal infrared.

Band Gain - The band gain condition detected at the start of a WRS scene. H indicates band acquired in high gain mode. L indicates band acquired in low gain mode.

Bit - A single digital unit of information.

Bit Error Rate - The fraction of a sequence of message bits that are in error (a bit error rate of 10-6 means that there is an average of one error per million bits).

Browse data - A reduced data volume representation of an image scene that can be viewed to determine general ground area coverage and cloud coverage. Browse data typically consist of three spectral bands.

Calibration - The act or process of comparing certain specific measurements in an instrument with a standard.

Calibration Data - In remote sensing, measurements pertaining to the spectral or geometric characteristics of a sensor or radiation source. Calibration data are obtained by using a fixed energy source such as a calibration lamp, a temperature plate, or a geometric test pattern.

Calibration Parameter File (CPF) - The Calibration Parameter File (CPF) supplies the radiometric and geometric correction parameters required during Level 1 processing to create superior products of uniform consistency across the Landsat 7 system. They fall into one of three major categories: geometric parameters, radiometric parameters, or artifact removal parameters. Each CPF is stamped with applicability dates; then sent to the LP DAAC for storage and eventual bundling with outbound Level 0 products. The Image Assessment System (IAS) updates and distributes the CPF at least every 90 days.

Channel - A one-way communications link.

Coherent Noise - A spurious, periodic pattern of noise within an image, generally of electronic origin.

Data Continuity - A NASA requirement to ensure that Landsat 7 data are compatible to those obtained by earlier Landsat satellites.

Data set - A logically meaningful grouping or collection of similar or related data.

Descending node - Direction a satellite is traveling relative to the Equator. A descending node implies a southbound Equatorial crossing.

Digital - A means for encoding information in a communications signal by using bits (binary digits). Conversion of information into bits of data for transmission through wire, fiber optic cable, satellite, or over air techniques. Method allows simultaneous transmission of voice, data or video.

Downlink - A communications channel for receiving transmissions from a spacecraft.

Dynamic Range - The range between the maximum and minimum amount of input radiant energy that an instrument can measure.

Electromagnetic - Relating to the interplay between electric and magnetic fields.

Electromagnetic radiation - Energy transfer in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles that propagate through space at the speed of light.

Electromagnetic spectrum - The entire range of radiant energies or wave frequencies from the longest to the shortest wavelengths--the categorization of solar radiation. Satellite sensors collect this energy, but what the detectors capture is only a small portion of the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The spectrum is usually divided into seven sections: radio, microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-ray, and gamma-ray radiation.

Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) - The sensor aboard Landsat 7 that picks up solar radiation reflected by or emitted from the Earth.

Ephemeris - A table of satellite orbital locations for specific time intervals. The ephemeris data help to characterize the conditions under which remotely sensed data are collected and are commonly used to correct the sensor data before analysis.

Equator - An imaginary circle around a body that is everywhere equidistant from the poles, defining the boundary between the northern and southern hemispheres.

EROS Center - Earth Resources Observation and Science Center is a national archive, production, distribution, and research facility for remotely sensed data and other geographic information.

ETM+ Format 1 - The ETM+ Format 1 major frames contain all data (e.g., imaging and calibration) from and associated with Bands 1?6. The MSCD and PCD data are duplicated in both ETM+ formats.

ETM+ Format 2 - The ETM+ Format 2 major frames contain all data (e.g., imaging and calibration) from and associated with Bands 6?8. The MSCD and PCD data are duplicated in both ETM+ formats.

Full WRS Scene - A full WRS scene with overlap is 375 ETM+ scans. A nominal scene without overlap is 335 ETM+ scans. Due to a movement of the bumpers, which resulted in a larger turn-around interval and an increase in the nominal number of minor frames per major frame (from 7,423 to 7,473), the nominal size of a scene without overlap may decrease. Further bumper wear changes may decrease the number of scans without overlap. The number of overlap scans will increase to compensate for the decrease in the non-overlap scene size.

Gain - (1) A general term used to denote an increase in signal power in transmission from one point to another; usually expressed in decibels. (2) An increase or amplification. (3) A measure of amplification expressed in dB.

Gaussian Noise - Statistically random radio noise characterized by a wide frequency spectrum that is continuous and uniform over a specified frequency band.

Geostationary orbit - "Describes an orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position (appears stationary) with respect to the rotating Earth. The satellite travels around the Earth in the same direction, at an altitude of approximately 35,790 km (22,240 statute miles) because that produces an orbital period equal to the period of rotation of the Earth (actually 23 hours, 56 minutes, 04.09 seconds). A worldwide network of operational geostationary meteorological satellites provides visible and infrared images of Earth's surface and atmosphere."

Gimbal - A device with two mutually perpendicular and intersecting axes of rotation, thus giving free angular movement in two directions, on which an object may be mounted.

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) - The mean solar time of the meridian of Greenwich, England, used as the prime basis of standard time throughout the world.

High Gain/Low Gain Antenna - A high gain antenna is highly focused, whereas a low gain antenna receives or transmits over a wide angle.
Infrared radiation - Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between about 0.7 to 1000 micrometers. Infrared waves are not visible to the human eye. Longer infrared waves are thermal infrared waves.

Interval - The time duration between the start and end of an imaging operation (land observation) by the ETM+ instrument on board the Landsat 7 spacecraft. The raw wideband data collected during an interval consists of a contiguous set of WRS scenes.

No J entries
No K entries
Landsat - Land Remote Sensing Satellite Program managed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The Landsat Satellite series began in 1972 to gather information about land surface features of the planet. Landsat 5, launched in 1984, and Landsat 7, launched in 1999, are still operational.

Data from the satellites have been used for monitoring land cover conditions, geological / mineralogical exploration, urban growth, and cartography. Global coverage is available and data sets are provided by the USGS at the cost of reproduction.

Landsat 7 Contact Period - The time duration between the start and end of raw wideband data transmissions from the Landsat 7 spacecraft to a ground station [e.g., the Landsat 7 Ground Station (LGS).

Latitude - The angular distance North or South from the Earth's equator measured in degrees with the equator at 0o and the poles 90o N and 90o S.

Level 0R Files - The generic term used to denote the grouping of band, MSCD, PCD, and calibration data files for a single subinterval.

Level 0R product - A US data product in which the data has been spatially reformatted but the data values remain unchanged. No radiometric or geometric corrections have been performed on the data. The reformatting is fully reversible. The data is band sequential. Attached to the image data are radiometric calibration image data, payload correction data, quality data, and metadata.

Level 0R Quality and Accounting Data - The data quality and accounting information collected by the Landsat 7 Processing System (LPS), on a subinterval basis, from processing of the ETM+ major frames constructed from the wideband Virtual Channel Data Units (VCDUs) received during a Landsat 7 contact period.

Longitude - The angular distance East or West between the meridian of a particular place on Earth and that of Greenwich, England, expressed in degrees or time.

Loss of Signal - The inability to receive a satellite signal because the satellite's orbital path has taken it below the antenna's horizon.

Lower Scene Corners - The corners associated with the leading edge (last scan) of a scene. For descending path scenes, the lower left corner corresponds to the southwest corner of a scene and the lower right corner corresponds to the southeast corner of a scene. For ascending path scenes, the lower left corner corresponds to the northeast corner of a scene and the lower right corner corresponds to the northwest corner of a scene. These mappings hold for the band file geolocation fields and the metadata file.

LPS (output) Files - The generic term used to denote the grouping of Level 0R, browse, and metadata files for a single subinterval. L0R files contain image data, cal data, PCD, and MSCD. Multi-band browse scenes file and metadata file contained in the LPS Output File Set.

Mercator - Of, relating to, or drawn on the Mercator projection (a conformal map projection with the meridians drawn parallel to each other and the parallels of latitude drawn as straight lines whose distance from each other increases with their distance from the equator).

Metadata - A set of descriptive information about the scene data contained in the archive. The information is sufficient for a user, during the process of scene query and selection, to determine at a minimum geographic coverage, date of collection sensor gain mode, time of acquisition, cloud cover, and other quality measurements.

Missions Operations Center (MOC) - The place where the satellite or spacecraft receives coded instructions and delivers data. The coordination place (usually on Earth) for any space mission.

Modulation - The variation of a property of an electromagnetic wave or signal, such as its amplitude, frequency, or phase.

Mosaicking: - The assembling of photographs or other images whose edges are cut and matched to form a continuous photographic representation of a portion of the Earth's surface.

Multispectral - Sensing in usually 4 distinct wavelength bands (equivalent to colors, not all of which are visible to the human eye). Because the data handling capacity of the sensor is spread over these different wavelengths, this usually translates to lower resolution than panchromatic.

Multispectral image - A remote sensing image created using data collected from more than one band.

Multispectral Scanner (MSS) - A line-scanning instrument flown on Landsat satellites that continually scans the Earth in a 185 km (100 nautical miles) swath. On Landsats 1, 2, 4, and 5, the MSS had four spectral bands in the visible and near infrared with an IFOV of 80 meters. Landsat 3 had a fifth band in the thermal infrared with an IFOV of 240 meters. The MSS is a non-photographic imaging system that utilizes an oscillating mirror and fiber optic sensor array. The mirror sweeps from side to side, transmitting incoming energy to a detector array that sequentially outputs brightness values (signal strengths) for successive pixels, one swath at a time. The forward motion of the sensor platform carries the instrument to a position along its path where it can image an adjacent swath.

Nadir - Point on Earth directly beneath a satellite, the opposite of zenith.

NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1958 through the National Aeronautics and Space Act as an outgrowth of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics.

Noise - Any unwanted and unmodulated energy that is always present to some extent within any signal.

Orbit - The path of a body acted upon by the force of gravity.

Orbital period - The time it takes a satellite to complete one revolution (orbit) around the Earth. The orbital period of Landsat 7 is about 1.5 hours.

Oscillator - A device for producing alternating current.

Panchromatic - Sensitive to all or most of the visible spectrum, between 0.4 and 0.7 micrometers. Landsat 7 has a panchromatic band.

Partial Scene - A partial scene (less than 375 scans) may exist at the beginning or end of a subinterval because imaging events do not always start or end on WRS scene boundaries. If generated, browse and scene metadata for these occurrences accurately reflect their partial scene nature and geographic extent.

Passive Sensor - A type of remote sensing instrument, a passive sensor picks up radiation reflected or emitted by the Earth. ETM+ is a passive remote sensing system.

Payload Correction Data (PCD) - Imaging support data imbedded in the wideband data stream. Includes satellite attitude, ephemeris, time, angular displacement sensor (ADS) data, and payload state.

Pixel - An abbreviation of picture element. The minimum size area on the ground detectable by a remote sensing device. The size varies depending on the type of sensor.

Polar orbit - An orbit with an orbital inclination of near 90 degrees where the satellite ground track will cross both polar regions once during each orbit. The term describes the near-polar orbits of spacecraft.

Pseudorandom - Being or involving entities (as numbers) selected by a definite computational process that satisfy one or more standard tests for statistical randomness.

Quantization - 1) To subdivide into small but measurable increments. 2) To calculate or express in terms of quantum mechanics
Radar - "Short for ""radio detection and ranging,"" radar sends out short pulses of microwave energy and records the returned signal's strength and time of arrival."

Radiometer - A device that detects and measures electromagnetic radiation.

Radiometric - Relating to, using, or measured by a radiometer. The measurement of radiation.

Raster Data - An abstraction of the real world where spatial data is expressed as a matrix of cells or pixels, with spatial position implicit in the ordering of the pixels. With the raster data model, spatial data is not continuous but divided into discrete units. This makes raster data particularly suitable for certain types of spatial operations (e.g., overlays or area calculations). Unlike vector data, there are no implicit topological relationships.

Raster Graphics - Graphics in which an image is generated by scanning an entire screen or page and marking every point as black, white, or another color (as opposed to vector graphics).

Rasterize - The process of converting vector points, lines, and areas into raster image format.

Raw Data - Numerical values representing the direct observations output by a measuring instrument transmitted as a bit stream in the order they were obtained.

Real-time - Time in which reporting on events or recording of events is simultaneous with the events. For example, the real time of a satellite is the time in which it simultaneously reports its environment as it encounters it.

Remote Sensing - (1) In the broadest sense, the measurement or acquisition of information about some property of an object or phenomenon, by a recording device that is not in physical or intimate contact with the object or phenomenon under study. (2) Instruments that record characteristics of objects at a distance, sometimes forming an image by gathering, focusing, and recording reflected light from the Sun, or reflected radio waves emitted by the spacecraft.

Resampling - Modifying the geometry of an image (which may be from either a remotely sensed or map data source). This process usually involves rectification and/or registration.

Resolution - (1) A measure of the amount of detail that can be seen in an image; the size of the smallest object recognizable using the detector. (2) Intensity or rate of data sampling. In remotely sensed imagery, resolution is significant in four measurement dimensions: spectral, spatial, radiometric and temporal.

Retrograde - (1) Of or relating to the orbital revolution or axial rotation of a planetary or other celestial body that moves clockwise from east to west, in the direction opposite to most celestial bodies. (2) Of or relating to the brief, regularly occurring, apparently backward movement of a planetary body in its orbit as viewed against the fixed stars, caused by the differing orbital velocities of Earth and the body observed.

Revolution - Orbital motion about a point located outside the orbiting body.

Rotation - Motion around an axis passing through the rotating body.

Row - (1) The latitudinal (nominal) center line of a Landsat scene. (2) The scan lines that constitute an image.

Satellite - Any body, natural or artificial, in orbit around a planet. The term is used most often to describe moons and spacecraft. A man-made satellite is a spacecraft that orbits another body, such as a planet or the Sun. A natural satellite is another term for a moon.

Saturation - The intensity of a color. A highly saturated color is a vivid, brilliant color; to dull a color (decrease its saturation), you add small amounts of its complement, making it closer to gray.

S-Band - A range of microwave radio frequencies in the neighborhood of 2 to 4 GHz, used for communicating with piloted space missions (~2 Ghz).

Scan - An image data line produced from a single detector of a band during a scan.

Scan Line - A series of spacecraft pointings in one dimension.

Scanning Mirror - Landsat TM?s scanning mirror collects data on both the forward and reverse scans.

Scenes - Each Landsat image collected is a scene. Each Landsat scene is 115 x 106 miles long. The globe is divided into 57,784 scenes, and each Landsat scene has about 3 billion bytes of data.

Single Event Upsets - A Single Event Upset (SEU) occurs when an energetic particle travels through a transistor substrate and causes electrical signals within the transistor. This is a known phenomenon that usually occurs in near-earth orbit to spacecraft passing through the Van Allen belts, especially the northern and southern auroral zones and the south Atlantic anomaly.

Site - The physical location of an International Ground Station (IGS) or the Mission Operations Center (MOC).

Spatial Data - Any information about the location, shape of, and relationships among geographic features. This includes remotely sensed data as well as map data.

Spatial Resolution - The area on the ground that an imaging system (such as a satellite sensor) can distinguish.

Spectral Range - The wavelength difference between two wavelengths in adjacent orders at the same angle of diffraction

Spectral Response - The relative amplitude of the response of a detector vs. the frequency of incident electromagnetic radiation.

Spectrometer - An optical instrument that splits the light received from an object into its component wavelengths by means of a diffraction grating, then measuring the amplitudes of the individual wavelengths.

Subinterval - A segment of a raw wideband data interval received during a Landsat 7 contact period. Subintervals are caused by breaks in the wideband data stream due to communication dropouts and/or the inability of the spacecraft to transmit a complete observation (interval) within a single Landsat 7 contact period. The largest possible subinterval can be as long as a full imaging interval (a set of contiguous WRS scenes) transmitted during an uninterrupted contact period. The smallest possible subinterval can be as small as a set of a few contiguous ETM+ scans (a partial WRS scene). The smallest size of a subinterval is an operator modifiable parameter in LPS. If the smallest subinterval size is chosen to be as long as a full WRS scene, it will contain approximately 24 seconds worth of ETM+ data or 335 scans (without the 20 overlapping scans each

Sun-synchronous orbit - An orbit in which a satellite is always in the same position with respect to the rotating Earth at the same time of day. The satellite travels around the Earth in the same direction, at an altitude of approximately 438 miles (705 kilometers). Landsat-7 is sun-synchronous, always passing overhead at approximately 10:00 am local time.

Synchronous - The instantaneous alignment of two or more events in time. Events may occur at irregular intervals

Telemetry - (1) Radio signals from a spacecraft used to encode and transmit data to a ground station. (2) The science of measuring a quantity, transmitting the measured value to a distant station, and there, interpreting or recording the quantity measured.

Thematic data - Thematic data layers in a data set are layers of information that deal with a particular theme. These layers are typically related information that logically goes together.

Thermal infrared - Electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between 3 and 25 micrometers.

Thematic Mapper - "A Landsat multispectral scanner designed to acquire data to categorize the Earth's surface. Particular emphasis was placed on agricultural applications and identification of land use. The scanner continuously scans the surface of the Earth, simultaneously acquiring data in seven spectral channels. Overlaying two or more bands produces a false color image. The ground resolution of the six visible and shortwave bands of the Thematic Mapper is 30 meters, and the resolution of the thermal infrared band is 120 meters. Thematic mappers were flown on Landsat 4 and 5."

U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) - A bureau of the Department of the Interior. USGS was established in 1879 following several Federally sponsored independent natural resource surveys of the West and Midwest. The Department of the Interior has responsibility for most of our nationally owned public lands and natural resources. The USGS monitors resources such as energy, minerals, water, land, agriculture, and irrigation. The resulting scientific information contributes to environmental-policy decision-making and public safety. For example, USGS identifies flood- and landslide-prone areas and maintains maps of the United States.

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) Projection - A widely used map projection that employs a series of identical projections around the world in the mid-latitude areas, each spanning six degrees of longitude and oriented to a meridian. This projection is characterized by its conformality; that is, it preserves angular relationships and scale and it easily allows a rectangular grid to be superimposed on it. Many worldwide topographic and planimetric maps at scales ranging between 1:24,000 and 1:250,000 use this projection.

Uplink - A connection through which signals transmit to a satellite.

Upper Scene Corners - The corners associated with the trailing edge (first scan) of a scene. For descending path scenes, the upper left corner corresponds to the northwest corner of a scene and the upper right corner corresponds to the northeast corner of a scene. For ascending path scenes, the upper left corner corresponds to the southeast corner of a scene and the upper right corner corresponds to the southwest corner of a scene. These mappings hold for the band file geolocation fields and the metadata file.

Vector Data - Vector data, when used in the context of spatial or map information, refers to a format where all map data is stored as points, lines, and areas rather than as an image or continuous tone picture. These vector data have location and attribute information associated with them.

Visible radiation - The electromagnetic radiation that humans can see as colors. The visible spectrum is composed of wavelengths between 0.4 to 0.7 micrometers. Red is the longest and violet is the shortest. Landsat 7 has three visible bands in red, green, and blue.

Wavelength - The distance from crest to crest, or trough to trough, of an electromagnetic or other wave. Wavelengths are related to frequency: The longer the wavelength, the lower the frequency.

Worldwide Reference System (WRS) - A global indexing scheme designed for the Landsat Program based on nominal scene centers defined by path and row coordinates.

X-band - A nominal frequency range from 12.5 to 8 GHz (2.4 to 3.75 cm wavelength) within the microwave (radar) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. X-band is a suitable frequency for several high-resolution radar applications and is used for both experimental and operational airborne systems.
No Y entries
Zenith - The point on the celestial sphere directly above the observer. Opposite the nadir.



Acronyms: Contains a list of acronyms located in Landsat documentation and throughout the web site.

Download All Acronyms - .xls (200 KB) If you do not have Microsoft Excel, please download the plug-in to view the acronym list.

A&A - Authorization and Authentication
A&P - Archive and Production
A/D - Analog/Digital
AA - Active Archive or Alternative Analysis
AAC - Archive Advisory Committee
AADP - Active Archive Data Package
AAG - Association of American Geographers
AAOS - Albers Automatic Ordering System
AAR - After Action Report
AAS - Anomaly Analysis Subsystem
AATHom - Average Across-Track Homogeneity
ABML - As-Built Materials List
ABPL - As-Built Parts List
ABS - Absolute
AC - Alternate Current or Archive Cache or Actual Cost
ACCA - Automated Cloud Cover Assessment or Actual Cloud Cover Average
ACK - Acknowledgement
ACL - Access Control List
ACQ - Acquired Scenes Report
ACRES - Australian Center for Remote Sensing
ACTHom - Average Cross-Track Homogeneity
ACS - Attitude Control System
ACSLS - Automated Cartridge System Library Software
ACU - Antenna Control Unit
ACWP - Actual Cost of Work Performed
AD - Active Directory
ADA - Angular Displacement Assembly or Attitude Displacement Assembly
ADAT - Application and Data Assessment
ADC - After DC Restore or Ancillary Data Corrector or Analog-to-Digital Conversion
ADD - Algorithm Description Document
ADF - Ancillary Data File
ADIC - Advanced Digital Information Corporation
ADM - Administrative Message
ADML - As-Designed Materials List
ADPL - As-Designed Parts List
ADS - Attitude Displacement Sensors or Angular Displacement Sensor or Archive Data Stager
ADSA - Attitude Displacement Sensor Assembly
ADVP - Algorithm Development and Verification Plan
AE - Archive Element
AEM - Auxiliary Electronics Module
AES - Advanced Encryption Standard
AFB - United States Air Force Base
AFM - Anomalous Frame Manager
AFOV - Angular Field of View
AFWA - Air Force Weather Agency
AGC - Automatic Gain Control
AGE - Automated Ground Equipment
AGS - Alaska Ground Station
AGU - American Geophysical Union
AIM - Algorithm Integration Meeting
AIP - Archival Information Package
AIS - Automated Information Security
AIT - Algorithm Implementation Team
AJAX - Asynchronous Java Script and XML
ALI - Advanced Land Imager
ALIAS - Advanced Land Image Assessment System
AM - Artifact Mask
AMP - Allocation Management Planner
AMTS - Asset Management Tracking System
AN - Ascending Node
ANC - Ancillary File
ANN - Annotation File
ANSI - American National Standards Institute
ANSS - Advanced National Seismic System
ANTLR - Another Tool for Language Recognition
AO - Authorization Official or Authorizing Official
AOI - Area of Interest
AOS - Acquisition of Signal or Arrival On-Site or Automated Ordering System
API - Application Programming Interface
APID - Application Identification
AQ - Advanced Queuing
AQPSK - Asynchronous Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
AR - Archive or Axial Ratio
ARB - Architecture Review Board
ARD - Analysis Ready Data
ART - Anomaly Resolution Team
AS - Archive Server
ASA - Archive Server Application or Alice Springs [Station] Australia
ASB - Administrative Services Branch
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASGUI - Archive Server Graphical User Interface
ASHRAE - American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning
ASIC - Application Specific Integrated Circuit
ASN - Alice Springs Ground Station or Australian Network
ASPRS - American Society of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing
ASQC - American Society for Quality Control
AST - Active Scan Time
ASTER - Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection
ASTM - American Society for Testing of Materials
AT-ACCA - Artificial Thermal Automated Cloud Cover Assessment
ATBD - Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document
ATCS - Absolute Time Command Sequence
ATL - Automated Tape Library
ATM - Asynchronous Transfer Mode
ATHom - Along-Track Homogeneity
ATP - Authority to Proceed
ATO - Authority to Operate
ATS - Absolute Time Sequence
ATT - Authorization to Test
AU - Astronomical Units
AUI - Analyst User Interface
AVHRR - Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer
AVI - Audio Video Interleave
AVPD - Avtec Programmable Demodulator
AVT - Algorithm Verification Test
AWM - Analytical Workspace Manager

B&A - Billing & Accounting
B1 - Build 1
B2B - Band-to-Band
B2BCal - Band-to-Band Calibration
BA - Billing and Accounting or Burned Area
BAC - Budget at Completion
BAD - Block Address Data
BASIS+ - Budget and Science Information System Plus
BATC - Ball Aerospace & Technology Corporation
BBC - Black Body Calibrator
BBOX - Bounding Box
BC - Best Case
BCD - Binary-Coded Decimal
BCH - Bose-Chaudhuri-Hocquenghem Error Detection and Correction
BCISO - Bureau Chief Information Security Officer
BCR - Baseline Change Request
BCWP - Budgeted Cost of Work Performed
BCWS - Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled
BD - Band
BER - Bit Error Rate
BERT - Bit Error Rate Test
BIA - Business Impact Analysis or Business Impact Assessment
BIH - Bureau International de l'Heure
BIL - Band Interleaved by Line
BIP - Band Interleaved by Pixel
BIP2 - Band Interleaved by Pixel Pair
BIS - Bureau of Industry and Security
BITSM - Bureau Information Technology Security Manager
BJC - Beijing, Peoples Republic of China Ground Station
BKT - Bangkik, Thailand Ground Station
bLMOC - Backup Landsat Multi-Satellite Operations Center
BME - Browser Mean Element
BMO - Business Management Office
BMOC - Backup Mission Operations Center
BMOE - Backup Mission Operations Element
BN - Background Noise
BOC - Budget Object Class
BOE - Basis of Estimate
BOM - Bill of Materials
BP - Bias Parameter
BPA - Blanket Purchase Agreement
BPAL - Best Practices Asset Library
BPDU - Bitstream Protocol Data Unit
BPF - Bias Parameter File
BPG - Bias Parameter Generator
BPSK - Biphase Shift Keying
BRAA - Band Registration Accuracy Assessment
BRAT - Bit Rot Assessment Tool
BRDF - Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function
BRDF-n - Normalized Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function
BRDF-s - Spectral Bi-directional Reflectance Distribution Function
BSP - Best Security Practices
BSQ - Band Sequential
BSTAR - Drag-Related Parameter in the NORAD Two-Line Element
BSU - Baseband Switching Unit
BSSC - Bit Synchronizer / Signal Conditioner
BTC - Bench Test Cooler
BTF - Ball Test Facility
BTI - Blank Tape Interface
BUI - Bumper mode User Interface
BUTST - Bureau Unix Technical Support Team
BVR - Boast Voltage Regulator
BWTST - Bureau Windows Technical Support Team

C0 - Coefficient 0
C1 - Coefficient 1
C2 - Coefficient 2
C - Centigrade
C& DH - Command and Data Handling
C&A - Certification and Accreditation
C&T - Command and Telemetry
C3S - NPOESS Command, Control, and Communications Segment
CA - Conjunction Assessment or Control Account or Cost Account
CADU - Channel Access Data Unit
CAGE - Commercial and Government Entity
CAL - Calibration Data
CalManWG - Calibration Maneuver Working Group
CALTest - Calibration/Validation Test
Cal/Val - Calibration/Validation
CAM - Control Account Manager
CAOS - Collection Automatic Ordering System
CAP - Cartridge Access Port or Control Account Plan
CAPE - Collection Activity Planning Element
CAPERD - CAPE Requirements Document
CARA - Conjunction Assessment Risk Analysis
CARD - Constraints and Restrictions Document
CASA - Cloud And Cloud Shadow Assessment
CA-WAD - Cost Account Work Authorization Document
CBA - Cost Benefit Analysis
CBB - Contract Budget Base
CBC - Cipher Block Chaining
CBG - Configuration and Build Guide
CBN - Cuiaba Earth Station
CC - Cubic Convolution or Computer Compatible Tape or Cloud Cover
CCA - Cloud Cover Assessment or Clinger-Cohen Act
CCB - Configuration Control Board
CCD - Charge-Coupled Device
CCE - Cryocooler Electronics
CCI - Controlled Cryptographic Item
CCL - Commerce Control List
CCM - Cloud Cover Manager
CCMS - Combined Cache Management Subsystem
CCOH - Cost Center Overhead
CCP - Configuration Change Process or Contamination Control Process or Cloud Cover Prediction
CCR - Configuration Change Request
CCRS - Canada Center for Remote Sensing
CCS - COI Cleanup System or Confirmed Contact Schedule or Constellation Coordination System
CCSDS - Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems
CCT - Computer Compatible Tape or Credit Card Transaction
CD - Change Directory or Compact Disk
CDB - Centralized Database
CDBS - Centralized Database System
CDE - Common Desktop Environment
CDI - Capture Device Identifier
CDMS - Carrier Doppler Measurement System
CDLR - Contract Data Requirements List
CDR - Critical Design Review or Calibration Data Record or Climate Data Records
CDRL - Contract Data Requirements List
CD-ROM - Compact Disk-Read Only Memory
CDS - Coded Data Segment or Comprehensive Discrepancy System
CDT - Central Daylight Time or CPF Distribution Tool
CE - Circular Error
CE90 - Circular Error 90
CEER - Critical Event Readiness Review
CEOS - Committee on Earth Observing Satellites
CER - Cost Estimating Relationship
CERT - Community Emergency Response Team
CES - Cost Element Structure
CF - Correction Factor or Cloud Fraction
CFC - Contact Forecast Confirmation or Cloud Fraction Climatology
CFDP - CCSDS File Delivery Protocol
CFL - Conflict Notice
CFMask - C version of Fmask
CFP - Cold Focal Plane
CFPA - Cold Focal Plan Array or Cold Focal Plane Assembly
CFR - Code of Federal Regulations or Contact Forecast Request
CGB - Calculated Gains and Biases
CI - Configuration Item or Continuous Integratio
CIA - Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability
CIB - Controlled Image Base
CIC - Computer Interrupt Code
CIL - Critical Items List
CIIL - Configuration Item Identifier List
CIO - Chief Information Officer
CIRC - Computer Incident Reporting Center
CIS - Center for Information Security
CISO - Chief Information Security Officer
CISSP - Certified Information Systems Security Professional
CITT - Center Information Technology Team
CIU - Controls Interface Unit
CLCW - Command Link Control Word
CLOB - Character Large Object
CLR - Combined Labor Rate Contractor Labor Rate
CLTU - Command Link Transmission Unit
CLU - Climate and Land Use
cm - Centimeter
CM - Configuration Management or Center of Mass
CMC - Center Management Council
CMD - Command
CMG - Climate Modeling Grid
CMM - Capability Maturity Model
CMMI - Capability Maturity Model Integration
CMO - Configuration Management Office
CMP - Configuration Management Plan or Change Management Plan
CMS - Content Management System
CN - Coherent Noise
CNDs - Could-Not-Duplicates
CNES - Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales
CNR - Carrier-to-Noise Ratio
CO - Contract Officer or Content Owner
COA - Cordoba, Argentina Ground Station
COC - Certificate of Completion or Cost of Consequence
COFUR - Cost of Fulfilling a User Request
COG - Center of Gravity or Continuity of Government
COI - Common Order Interface
COIGUI - Common Order Interface Graphical User Interface
COLA - Collision Avoidance
COMM - Communications Subsystem
COMSEC - Communications Security
Con Ops - Concept of Operations
CONAE - Commission Nacional De Actividades Espaciales
CONUS - Continental United States
COOP - Continuity of Operations
COP - Contingency Operating Procedure
COR - Contracting Officer Representative or Cost of Reproduction
COTR - Contracting Officer’s Technical Representative
COTS - Commercial Off-The-Shelf
CP - Calibration Parameter or Change Proposal
CPAF - Cost Plus Award Fee
CPC - Contingency Plan Coordinator
CPF - Calibration Parameter File
CPFF - Cost-Plus-Fixed Fee
CPI - Cost Performance Index
CPIC - Capital Planning and Investment Control
CPM - Critical Path Methodology
CPO - Custodial Property Officer
CPR - Cost Performance Report
CPS - Calibration Parameter Management and Testing Subsystem
CPT - Comprehensive Performance Test
CPU - Central Processing Unit
CR - Central Repository or Controlled Repository or Change Request or Contingency Reserve or Carriage Return
CR1 - Computer Room 1
CR1MSS - Computer Room 1 Mass Storage System
CR2 - Computer Room 2
CR2IT - Centralized Repository 2 Integration and Test
CR2OPS - Centralized Repository 2 Operations
CR2ST - Centralized Repository 2 System Test
CR3 - Computer Room 3
CRADA - NOAA Big Data Cooperative Research and Development Agreement
CRaM - Combined Radiometric Model
CRC - Cyclic Redundancy Check or Cyclic Redundancy Code
CRDEV - Central Repository Development
CRIT - Central Repository Integration and Test
CRM - Customer Relationship Management or Continuous Risk Management
CRMP - Continuous Risk Management Plan
CRMT - Contingency Response Management Team
CROPS - Central Repository Operations
CRS - CDF Retrieval Subsystem
CRSSGS - China Remote Sensing Satellite Grand Station
CRST - Central Repository System Test
CRTEST - Central Repository Test
CS - Customer Service
CSA - Configuration Status Accounting
CSAM - Cyber Security Assessment Management
CSC - Computer Software Component
CSCI - Computer Software Configuration Item
CSIRT - Computer Security Incident Report Team
CSIS - Control and Schedule Interface System
CSMO - Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer
CSO - Communications Services Office or Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer
CSOP - COMSEC Standard Operating Procedure
CSR - Capture Success Rate or Capture Success Ratio
CSS - Cascading Style Sheet
CSU - Computer Software Units
CSV - Comma Separated Values
CTDiff - Cross-Track Difference
CTE - Calibration Test Equipment or Compatibility Test Equipment
CTHome - Cross-Track Homogeneity
CTP - Command and Telemetry Processors
CTS - Capture Transfer Subsystem
CTV - Compatibility Test Van
CUB - Cuiba, Brazil Ground Station
CUI - CPF User Interface
CV - Command Verification or Cost Variance
CV-5 - Calibration and Validation 5
CV-7 - Calibration and Validation 7
CVCDU - Coded Virtual Channel Data Unit
CVCM - Collected Volatile Condensable Material or Collected Volatile Condensable Mass
CVDQA - Calibration Validation Data Quality Assurance
CVE - Calibration Validation Element
CVS - Concurrent Versions System
CVT - Calibration and Validation Team
CVTK - Calibration / Validation Tool Kit
CVTKRD - Calibration and Validation Toolkit Requirements Document
CVWG - Calibration-Validation Working Group
CW - Continuous Wave
CWBS - Contractor Work Breakdown Structure
CY - Contract Year

D&M - Development and Maintenance
D/C - Down Converter
D/L - Downlink
D1R - DMS Generate L1R
D3 - 50GB Data tape cartridge from StorageTek
DA - Document Administrator
DAAC - Distributed Active Archive Center
DACA - Days After Contract Award
DAE - Data Acquisition Element
DAF - Data Acquisition Facility
DAG - Database Administrator Guide
DAM - Data Acquisition Manager or Database for Analysis and Modeling
DAP - Data Acquisition Plan or Data Acquisition Planner
DAR - Data at Rest
DART - Data Access Restriction Tool
DAS - Data and Applications Support
DASB - Direct Access S-Band
DAT - Data Access Tool
DAU - Defense Acquisition University
DB - Database or Data Block
dB - Decibel
dB/K - Decibel per Degree Kelvin
DBA - Database Administrator
DBaaS - Database as a Service
DBAR - Database Access Routines
DBCI - Database Configuration Item
DBDD - Database Design Description or Database Description Document
dB-Hz - Decibel-Hertz
dBi - Decibel above isotropic
DBI - Database Interface
DBMS - Database Management System
DBS - Data Services Branch
dBW - Decibel Relative to 1 Watt
DC - Direct Current
DC&P - Data Capture and Processing Facility
DCAA - Defense Contract Audit Agency
DCCB - DHF Configuration Control Board or Development Configuration Control Board
DCE - Data Collection Event
DCG - DMS Generate Custom GCPLib
DCN - Document Control Number or Document Change Notice
DCO - DMS Capture Order
DCP - Data Collection Planners
DCPF - Data Capture & Processing Facility
DCR - Document Change Request
DCRS - Data Collection and Routing Subsystem
DCRSf - Data Collection and Routing Subsystem file router
DCRSi - Data Collection and Routing Subsystem interval router or Digital Cassette Recorder System Incremental
DCRSUI - Data Collection and Routing Subsystem User Interface
DCS - Data Capture System or Data Characterization Subsystem or Destination Control Statement
DCT - Digital Cassette Tape
DDD - Displacement Damage Dose
DDI - DCS Data Ingest
DDL - Database Definition Language
DDR - Data Descriptor Record
DDRC - DPAS Design Reference Case
DDS - DCS Database Server or Database Distribution Subsystem
DDT - DPAS Test Team
DE - Definitive Ephemeris
DEF - Definitive Ephemeris Product
Delta-I - Delta-Inclination
DEM - Digital Elevation Model
DEPEPH - Definitive Ephemeris Product
DES - Station Description Message or DAAC Emergency System
DET - Escape Detection
DEU - Digital Electronic Unit
DEV - Development
DF - Diffuser Type
DFCB - Data Format Control Book
DFD - Data Flow Diagram
DFP - DMS Format and Package
DFT - DMS File Transfer
DG - Digital Globe
DGC - DMS Generate Custom GCPs
DGR - DMS Generate Report Statistics
DGT - DMS Generate Thumbnail
DHCP - Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
DHF - Data Handling Facility
DHN - Data Handling Node
DHS - Department of Homeland Security
DIAR - Department of the Interior Acquisition Regulation
DIAT - Daily Image Annotation Tape
DID - Data Item Description or DMS Ingest L0R Data
DIE - DMS Ingest Element
DIR - Direction
DIRT - Data Interception by Remote Transmission
DIS - Data Information System or Data Instrumentation System
DiTL - Day in The Life
DIV - Data Integrity Validation
DKI - Parepare, Indonesia Ground Station
DLT - Digital Linear Tape
DM - Data Management or Document Management or Data Manager
DMA - Direct Memory Access or Defense Mapping Agency
DMAPI - Data Manager Application Programmer Interface
DMB - Data Management Branch
DME - Development, Modernization, and Enhancement
DMF - Data Migration Facility
DMI - DCRS to MOE Interface
DML - Data Manipulation Language
DMP - Document Management Plan or Data Management Policy
DMR - Detailed Mission Requirements
DMS - Data Management Subsystem or Degrees, Minutes, Seconds
DMSP - Defense Meteorological Satellite Program
DMU - Data Migration Utility
DMZ - Demilitarized Zone
DN - Descending Node or Digital Number
DNS - Domain Name Server
DOC - Department of Commerce
DoD - Department of Defense
DOI - Department of Interior
DOORS - Dynamic Object-Oriented Requirements System
DOORS-NG - Dynamic Object-Oriented Requirements System Next Generation
DOP - Dilution of Precision
DOQ - Digital Orthophoto Quadrangle
DORRAN - Distributed Ordering, Research, Reporting, and Accounting Network
DoS - Denial of Service
DOS - Department of State
DOY - Day-of-Year
DP - Data Processing
DPA - Destructive Physical Analysis
DPAS - Data Processing and Archive System
DPASRD - DPAS Requirements Document
DPD - DMS Placement Daemon
DPL - DMS Process L0R
DPMC - Directorate Program Management Council
DPR - DMS Process ROLO Report
DPP - DMS Packet and Placement
DPS - Data Processing Subsystem
DQA - Data Quality Analyst
DQV - Data Quality Validation
DR - Delivery Record or Discrepancy Report or Disaster Recovery
DRA - DMS Retrieve Ancillary
DRAC - Dell Remote Access Controller
DRB - Discrepancy Review Board
DRC - Data Requirements List
DRC-16 - 16-day Design Reference Cage
DRE - DMS Retrieve Elevation
DRFP - Draft Request for Proposal
DRM - DMS Resource Manager
DRP - Disaster Recovery Plan
DRSF - Daily Request Status File
DRTS - Data Reporting and Tracking Subsystem
DSI - DMS Subsetter Interface
DSL - Days-Since-Launch
DSN - Deep Space Network
DSS - Data Staging System or DPAS Subsetter
DST - Data Support Team
DSW - DMS Setup Work Order
DSWE - Dynamic Surface Water Extent
DTED - Digital Terrain Elevation Data
DTG - Day Time Group
DTO - Data Transfer Object
DTR - Document Transfer Request
DTS - Development and Training Simulations
DUI - Data Manager User Interface or DMS Universal L0R Ingest
DUNS - Data Universal Numbering System
DV - Data Validation
DV&E - Data Validation & Exchange
DVD - Digital Versatile Disc
DVD-R - Digital Versatile Disc – Read Only
DWF - Design Web Format
DXL - DMS L0 and L1 Products

E&A - Evaluation and Analysis
E&IT - Engineering and Information Technology
EA - Enterprise Architecture
EAC - Estimate at Completion
EAR - Export Administration Regulations
EAS - Evaluation and Analysis Subsystem
EASI - Enterprise Architecture Study Implementation
EAST - EROS Architecture Study Team
Eb - Energy per Bit
Eb/N0 - Energy per Bit to Noise
EBAS - EROS Billing and Accounting System
EC - Electronic Copy
ECC - Error Correction Code
ECEF - Earth-Centered, Earth-Fixed
ECF - Earth Centered Fixed
ECI - Earth Centered Inertial
ECITOD - Earth Centered Inertial TRUE of Date
ECIMOD - ECI Mean of Date
ECL - Emitter-Coupled Logic
ECMP - EROS Contingency Plan Management
eCPIC - Electronic Capital Planning and Investment Control
ECR - Earth Centered Rotating
ECS - EOSDIS Core System
ECU - End Cryptographic Unit
ECV - Essential Climate Variable
EDAC - Error Detection and Correction
eDAR - Enterprise Data At Rest
EDC - EROS Data Center
EDDDR - EDC Daily Discrepancy Report or EDC Daily Data Received Report
EDG - EOS Data Gateway
EDU - Engineering Development Unit
EE - Earth Explorer
EEE - Electrical, Electronic, Electromechanical
EEMT - EROS Executive Management
EEO - Equal Employment Opportunity
EF - Earth-Fixed
EFS - Encrypting File System
EGS - Enterprise Ground System
EGSE - Electrical Ground Support Equipment
EIA - Electronic Industry Alliance
EIRP - Effective Isotropic Radiated Power
EIS - External Interface Specification
EISER - EROS Information System Event Response
EJB - Enterprise Java Beans
EKMS - Electronic Key Management System
EL1PS - EDC Level 1 Prototype System
ELV - Expendable Launch Vehicle
e-mail - Electronic Mail
EMC - Electromagnetic Compatibility
EMD - Enhanced Metadata
EMI - Electromagnetic Interference
EMP - Electromagnetic Pulse
EMV - Expected Monetary Value
EN - EarthNow!
ENVI - Environment for Visualizing Images
EO - Earth Observing
EO-1 - Earth Observing 1
EOC - Earth Observation Center
EOF - End-of-File
EOIS - Earth Observation Data & Information Systems
EOL - End-of-Line
EOM - End of Mission
EOMP - End of Mission Plan
EOP - Executive Office of the President
EOS - Earth Observing System
EOSAT - Earth Observation Satellite Company
EOSDIS - EOS Data and Information System
EPA - Euler Parameter or ESD Protected Area
EPF - ETM+ Processing Facility
EPGN - EOS Polar Groundstation Network
EPP - Electronic Power Converter for Payload
EPR - Engineering Peer Review
EPRP - Engineering Peer Review Plan
EPS - Electrical Power Subsystem
EPSG - European Petroleum Survey Group
ERB - Engineering Review Board
ERD - Entity Relationship Diagram
EROS - Earth Resources Observation and Science
ERR - Error
ERS - EROS Registration Service
ERTS - Earth Resources Technology Satellite
ESA - European Space Agency or Earth Sensor Assembly
ESB - Enterprise Service Bus
ESD - Earth Science Division or Electrostatic Discharge
ESDIS - Earth Science Data and Information System
ESF - Edge Spread Function
ESM - Equipment Support Module
ESMO - Earth Science Mission Operations
ESN - Enterprise Services Network
ESP - Encapsulating Security Payload or Engineering Specialty Plans
ESPA - EROS Science Processing Architecture
ESRIN - European Space Research Institute
ESUN - Solar Spectral Irradiance
ETC - Estimate to Completion
ETE - End to End
ETL - Extraction, Translation, Load
ETM - Enhanced Thematic Mapper
ETM+ - Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus
ETMDSS - Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus Data Subsetting Subsystem
ETRO - Estimated Return to Operations
ETV - Expected Time Value
EU - Engineering Unit
EV - Earned Value
EVDCU - Extended Virtual Channel Data Unit
EVM - Earned Value Management
EVMS - Earned Value Management System
EVP - Environmental Verification Plan
EVS - Earth-Vehicle-Sun angle or Earned Value System
EVT - Enhanced Value Technique
e-WAD - Employee Work Authorization Document
EWR - Eastern and Western Ranges
EWW - Extended Work Week

F&PS - Functional and Performance Specifications
FA - Formulation Authorization
FAC - Full Aperture Calibrator
FAD - Formulation Authorization Document
FAI - Federal Acquisition Institute
FAQ - Frequently Asked Question
FAR - Federal Acquisition Regulation
FASC - Full Aperture Solar Calibrator
FAST-L7A - FAST-Landsat 7 Format
FAT - Factory Acceptance Testing
FAX - Facsimile Transmission
FBI - Federal Bureau of Investigation
FBMS - Financial and Business Management System
FC - Formulation Contractor or Fiber Channel
FCA - Functional Configuration Audit
FC-AL - Fiber Channel-Arbitrated Loop
FCDAS - Fairbanks Command and Data Acquisition Station
FD - Flight Dynamics
FDAC - Failure Detection and Control
FDC - Failure Detection and Correction
FDD - Facilities Definition Document or Format Description Document
FDDI - Fiber-Distributed Data Interface
FEP - Front End Processor
FDF - Flight Dynamics Facility
FDIR - Fault Detection, Isolation, & Recovery
FEC - Forward Error Corrected
FEDS - Front End Data System
FEMA - Federal Emergency Management Agency
FFOV - Full Field of View
FFP - Firm Fixed Price
FRR - Flight Readiness Review
FFRDC - Federally Funded Research and Development Centers
FFS - Fiscal Financial System
FFT - Fast Fourier Transform
FFTW - Fastest Fourier Transform in the West
FGDC - Federal Geographic Data Committee
FHS - First Half Scan
FHSERR - First Half Scan Error
FIA - Final Implementation Agreement
FIFO - First In, First Out
FIPS - Federal Information Processing Standards
FIR - Finite Impulse Response
FISCAM - Federal Information System Control Audit Manual
FISMA - Federal Information Security Management Act
FISSA - Federal Information System Security Awareness
Fmask - Function of Mask
FMEA - Failure Mode and Effect Analysis
FMECA - Failure Modes, Effects, and Criticality Analysis
FMFIA - Federal Manager’s Financial Integrity Act
FMT - Format
FNMOC - Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center
FOCCB - Flight Operations Configuration Control Board
FOIA - Freedom of Information Act
FOM - Facilities Operations Manager
FOP - Flight Operations Plan
FOR - Flight Operations Review
FORMATS - Flight Dynamics Facility Orbit and Mission Aids Transformation System
FOS - Flight Operations Segment
FOT - Flight Operations Team
FOTS - Free Off-The-Shelf
FOV - Field of View
FPA - Focal Plane Assembly or Focal Plane Array
FPD - Flight Projects Directorate
FPE - Focal Plane Electronics
FPGA - Field-Programmable Gate Array
FPM - Focal Plane Modules
FPPS - Federal Personnel Payroll System
FQT - Formal Qualification Testing
FRB - Full-Resolution Browse
FRED - Framed Raw Expanded Data
FRP - Federal Response Plan
FRR - Flight Readiness Review
FRS - File Retrieval System
FS - Forecast Schedules
fSCA - Fractional Snow Covered Area
FSD - Flight Systems Development
FSM - Flight Systems Manager
FSSC - Financial Support Services Contract
FSV - Flight Software Vendor
FSW - Flight Software
FTA - Fault Tree Analysis
FTD - File Transfer Daemon
FTE - Full Time Equivalent or Full Time Employee
FTP - File Transfer Protocol
FTS - Flight Terminiation System
FW - Firewall or Full Width
FWHM - Full Width Half Maximum
FY - Fiscal Year

G/T - Gain over Temperature
G&A - General and Administrative
GAfG - Google Apps for Government
GAM - Geography Analysis and Monitoring
GAO - General Accounting Office
GAQD - Originator Routing Code for IIRV Messages
GAR - Global Archive Refresh
GAST - Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time
GB - Gigabyte
GBFOM - Global Band Figure of Merit
GBICS - Gigabit Interface Converters
GBL - Government Bill of Lading
GCCB - Ground Segment Configuration Control Board
GCDR - Ground System Critical Design Review
GCOR - Temperature Corrected Gains
GCP - Ground Control Point
GCRS - Geocentric Celectial Reference System
GCTP - General Cartographic Transformation Package
GDAL - Geospatial Data Abstraction Library
GDP - Gross Domestic Product
GDS - Ground Data Systems
GEO - Geolocation Index File
GEOM - Geometric
GeoRSS - Geographic Really Simple Syndication
GeoTIFF - Geographic Tagged Image File Format
GEVS - General Environmental Verification Specification
GFE - Government Furnished Equipment
GFP - Government Furnished Property
GFS - Global File System
GFY - Government Fiscal Year
GHz - Gigahertz
GIA - Government Inspection Agency
GIAC - Global Information Assurance Certification
GIDEP - Government Industry Data Exchange Program
GigE - Gigabit Ethernet
GIO - Geographic Information Officer
GIPS - Geo-Informatics Products and Solutions
GIS - Geographical Information Systems
GISRA - Government Information Security Reform Act
GISTDA - Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (Thailand)
GL - Geoscience Laboratory
GLAMR - Goddard Laser for Absolute Measurement of Radiance
GLC - Ground Look Calibration Request or Gilmore Creek
GloVis - Global Visualization Viewer
GLS - Global Land Survey or Global File System
GMAP - Global Monitoring Acquisition Plan
GMSEC - Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center
GMT - Greenwich Mean Time
GN - Ground Network
GNC - Gatineau, Canada Ground Station
GNE - Ground Network Element
GNE-DCRS - Ground Network Element Data Collection and Routing System
GNERD - GNE Requirements Document
GOES - Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite
GOLD - Goddard Open Learning Design
GOP - Ground Operations Plan
GOS - Geospatial One-Stop
GOT - Ground Operations Team
GOTS - Government Off-The-Shelf
GP4 - General Perturbations Theory
GPD - GSFC Policy Directive
GPDR - Ground System Preliminary Design Review
GPL - General Public License
GPR - GNE Post-Pass Report or Goddard Procedural Requirement
GPS - Geometric Processing System or Gap Phase Statistic or Global Positioning System
GRI - Ground Reference Image
GRIB - Gridded Data
GRID - Global Resource Information Database
GRM - Ground Readiness Manager
GRS - Grid Reference System (SPOT)
GRT - Ground Readiness Test
GRTP - Ground Readiness Test Plan
GRTT - Ground Readiness Test Team
GS - Ground System or Ground Segment
GSA - U.S. General Services Administration or Ground Station Analyst
GSC - Ground Station Controller
GSD - Ground Sampling Distance or Guide Star Data
GSDD - Ground System Design Document
GSE - Ground Support Equipment or Ground Station Engineers or Ground System Engineer
GSFC - Goddard Space Flight Center
GSI - Ground Station Identifier or Ground System Infrastructure or Ground Support Infrastructure
GSICS - Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System
GSIRD - Ground System Interface Requirements Document
GSIT - Ground System Integration
GSITP - Ground System Integration and Test Plan
GSIWG - Ground System Interface Working Group
GSL - GNU Scientific Library
GSM - Ground System Manager
GSMO - Ground System Management Office or Ground System and Mission Operations
GSOCD - Ground System Operations Concept Document
GSOPD - Ground System Operations Plan Document
GSRD - Ground System Requirements Document
GSRR - Ground System Requirements Review
GSRT - Ground System Review Team
GSSP - Guide for Developing Security Plans for Information Technology Systems
GST - Geographic Support Team or Ground Station Technician
GSTDN - Ground Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network
GSWG - Ground System Working Group
GSVVP - Ground System Verification and Validation Plan
GSVWG - Ground System Verification Working Group
GTOPO30 - Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set
GUI - Graphical User Interface
GXA - Gimbaled X-band Antennae

H/W - Hardware
HA - High Availability
HAAT - Header, Ancillary, Annotation, and Trailer
HC - Hard Copy
HCR - Hardware Configuration Request or Hardware Change Request
HDDS - Hazards Data Distribution Systems
HDF - Hierarchical Data Format
HDF-EOS - Hierarchical Data Format - Earth Observing System
HDFS - Hadoop File System
HDF5 - Hierarchical Data Format Version 5
HDF5-EOS - Hierarchical Data Format Version 5 - Earth Observing System
HDLC - High-Level Data Link Control
HDM - Hardware Data Manager or HSM Data Manager
HDR - Header
HDRM - High Data Rate Modem
HDS - Horizontal Display Shift
HDT - High Density Tape
HDTR - High Density Tape Recorder
HE - Hardware Engineer
Hex - Hexadecimal
HgCdTe - Mercury Cadmium Telluride
HGS - Hallway Ground Station
HK - Housekeeping
HLD - High-Level Document
HMP - Hardware Management Plan
HOM - Hotine Oblique Mercator
HOMFiH - Homogeneity Filter
HPA - High Power Antenna
HPN - Panchromatic Band Header File
HPP - Highest Point in Polygon
HQ - Headquarters
HR - Human Resources
HR MSI - High-Resolution Multi-Spectral Imager
HRS - Horizontal Resampling Space
HRV - High Resolution Visible (SPOT sensor)
HSM - Hierarchical Storage Management or Hierarchical Storage Manager
HSPD - Homeland Security Presidential Directive
HTM - Thermal Bands Header File
HTML - Hypertext Markup Language
HTSI - Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc.
HTTP - Hypertext Transfer Protocol
HTTPS - Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure
HUB - Historically Underutilized Business
HVAC - Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning
HVU - High Volume User
HWCI - Hardware Configuration Item
Hz - Hertz

I - In-Phase Channel
I1 - Internet 1
I2 - Internet 2
I&T - Integration and Test
I/O - Input/Output
I2I - Image-to-Image
I2RV - Improved Inter-Range Vector Message
IA - Implementing Agreement or Impact Analysis or International Activities or Interagency Agreement
IAA - Inter-Agency Agreement
IaaS - Infrastructure as a Service
IAC - Independent Assurance Contractor or Issue Assessment Code
IAD - Ion-Assisted Deposition
IAS - Image Assessment Subsystem or Image Assessment System
IASICP - IAS Internal Calibrator Pulse
IATO - Interim Authority To Operate
IAU - International Astronomical Union
IAW - In Association With
IBM - International Business Machines
IBR - Integrated Baseline Review
IC - Interface Control or International Cooperator or Internal Calibrator or Internal Cache
ICD - Interface Control Document
ICDR - Instrument Critical Design Review
ICe - Internal Calibrator processing for Emissive bands
ICF - Initial Correction Factor
ICMP - Internet Control Message Protocol
ICO - International Cooperator Office
ICT - Interface Connectivity Testing
ICVS - Independent Calibration and Verification Segment or Independent Characterization and Verification System
ICWP - IC Web Portal
ID - Infrastructure Design or Interface Documents or Identification
IDCC - Interval Data Collection Concept
IDCO - Image Data Collection Omission
IDCS - Image Data Collection Schedule
IDD - Interface Definitions Document
IDE - Integrated Device Electronics or Infrastructure Development or Integrated Development Environment
IDF - Interval Definition File or Image Data File
IDIQ - Indefinite Delievery Indefinity Quantity
IDL - Interactive Data Language
IDP - Individual Development Plan
IDPS - Image Data Processing Subsystem
IDR - IAS Data Recorder
IDS - Intrusion Detection System or Interval Delivery Subsystem
IDSO - Image Data Schedule Omission
IDSR - Image Data Schedule Report
IE - Infrastructure Element
IEC - iStat Executive Committee or International Electrotechnical Commission
IEEE - Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEM - Integrated Electronics Module
IERS - International Earth Rotation Service
IETF - Internet Engineering Task Force
IF - Intermediate Frequency
IFAT - ITOS File Accounting Tool
IFFT - Inverse Fast Fourier Transform
IFOV - Instrument Field of View or Instantaneous Field of View
IGE - Independent Government Estimate
IGMP - Internet Group Management Protocol
IGS - Integrated Security Gateway or International Ground Station
IIR - Image Impact Report
IIRR - Instrument Integration Readiness Review
IIRV - Improved Inter-Range Vector
IIOP - Internet Inter-ORB Protocol
IKE - Internet Key Exchange
ILI - IGS to LAM Interface
IM - Instant Message
IMB - Issue Management Board
IMF - Inverse Minor Frames or Interval Metadata File
IMP - Information Management Plan or Integrated Master Plan
IMR - Issue Management Record
IMS - Integrated Master Schedule or Information Management System
IMT - Integrated Mission Timeline
IMU - Inertial Measurement Unit or Internal Measurement Unit
IMWD - Internet Moving Window Display
IN - Impulse Noise or Ingest
INCOSE - International Council on Systems Engineering
INFOSEC - Information Security
ING - Ingest
INM - IGS Network Manager
INPE - National Institute for Space Research
InSb - Indium Antimonite
INV - Inventory
IOC - Initial Operational Capability or Initial On-orbit Checkout or Installation Operational Certification or In-Orbit Checkout or Initial Operational Configuration
IOE - Instrument Operations Element
IONET - IP Operational Network
IP - Internet Protocol or Installation Plan
IPA - Inter-Project Agreement
IPAC - Intergovernment Payment and Collection
IPC - Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits or Inter-Process Communication
IPComp - IP Payload Compression Protocol
IPDR - Instrument Preliminary Design Review
IPDS - Information Product Data System
IPDU - Internet Protocol Data Unit
IPE - Image Processing Element
IPM - IGS Priority Mask Online Tool or IGS Priority and Request Map or Incyte Project Manager
IPMR - Integrated Program Management Report
IPMS - Integrated Project Management System
IPMSD - Integrated Project Management System Description
IPO - Integrated Program Office
IPP - Invoice Processing Platform
IPR - Intersegment Problem Report
IPS - Intrusion Prevention System or Image Processing Subsystem
IPSec - Internet Protocol Security
IPSR - Instrument Pre-Ship Review
IPT - Integrated Project Team or Integrated Product Team
IPV - Integrated Pulse Value
IR - Infrared
IRB - Investment Review Board
IRD - Interface Requirements Document
IRFP - Implementation Request for Proposal
IRP - Incident Reporting Plan
IRR - Integrated Readiness Review
IRS - Interface Requirements Specification
IRU - Inertial Reference Unit
IRV - Improved Inter-Range Vector Message
ISA - Internet Security and Acceleration or Interconnection Security Agreement
ISCCP - International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project
ISCP - Infromation System Contingency Plan
iSCSI - Internet Small Computer System Interface
ISD - Interface Specification Document
ISF - Instrument Support Facility
ISI - Integral Systems Incorporated
ISL - Inter-Switch Link
ISO - International Standards Organization
ISSLOB - Information Systems Security Line of Business
ISSO - Information System Security Official
IST - Integrated System Test
ISTESR - Ingest Subsystem Test Execution Summary Report or Inventory Subsystem Test Execution Summary Report
ITSEC - Information Technology Security
IWAD - Individual Work Authorization Document
IT - Information Technology or Integration Test
ITAR - International Traffic in Arms Regulations
ITC - Integration Test Case
ITOS - Integrated Test and Operations System
ITRS - International Terrestrial Reference System
ITS - Information Technology Services or Integrated Time Sweep
ITSNOC - Information Technologies Service Network Operations Center
ITSOT - Information Technology Security Operations Team
ITSS - Information Technology and Scientific Services
ITU - International Telecommunications Union
IU - Individual User
IUR - Individual User Request
IV&V - Independent Verification and Validation
IVM - Interface Verification Matrix
IWG - Interface Working Group
IWT - Image Window Table

J2EE - Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition
JAR - Java Archive
JAXA - Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
JaxB - Java Architecture for XML Binding
JBOD - Just a Bunch Of Disks
JBOSS - J2EE Application Server
JCL - Joint Confidence Level
JDBC - Java Database Connectivity
JDK - Java Development Kit
JFIF - JPEG File Interchange Format
JMS - Java Messaging Service
JMSRA - Java Message Service Resource Adapter
JPEG - Joint Photographic Experts Group
JPF - Job Parameter File
JPL - Jet Propulsion Laboratory
JSA - Johannesburg, South Africa Ground Station
JSP - Java Server Pages
JSpOC - Joint Space Operations Center
JSR - Java Portlet Specification
JTS - Java Topology Suite
JVM - Java Virtual Machine

K - Degrees Kelvin
KB - Kilobyte
KA8 - Known Anomaly Eight
KDP - Key Decision Point
kg - kilogram
KHB - Kennedy Space Center Handbook
KHC - Kashi, China Ground Station
kHz - Kilohertz
KIS - Kiruna, Sweden Ground Station
km - Kilometer
KMI - Key Management Infrastructure
KML - Keyhole Markup Language
KMP - Key Management Plan
KPI - Key Performance Indicator
KPM - Key Performance Measures
KPR - Key Performance Requirement
KSAT - Kongsberg Satellite Services
KSC - Kennedy Space Center
KUJ - Kumomoto, Japan Ground Station
KVM - Keyboard Video Mouse

L0 - Level 0
L0c - Level 0 Corrected
L0R - Level 0 Reformatted
L0Ra - Level 0 Reformatted Archive
L0Rc - Level 0 Reformatted Corrected
L0Rp - Level 0 Reformatted Product
L1 - Level 1
L1AOS - Level 1 Automatic Ordering System
L1G - Level 1 Systematic (Corrected)
L1Gs - Level 1 Geometric Systematic
L1Gt - Level 1 Systematic Terrain (Corrected)
L1P - Level 1 Precision (Corrected)
L1R - Level 1 Radiometric (Corrected)
L1R-H - Hybrid Level 1 Radiometric
L1SE - Level 1 Sustaining Engineering
L1T - Level 1 Terrain (Corrected) or Level 1 Precision and Terrain
L1TP - Level 1 Terrain Precision (Corrected)
L4 - Level 4 or Landsat 4
L5 - Landsat 5
L7 - Landsat 7
L8 - Landsat 8
L9 - Landsat 9
LACCA - Land Automated Cloud Cover Assessment
LACS - Landsat Archive Conversion System
LADS - LDCM Archive and Dissemination Segment
LAM - Landsat Archive Manager
LAM AS - LAM Archive Server
LAM008 - Interface between COI PS and L0Rp PS
LAN - Local Area Network
LAS - Land Analysis System
LASP - Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics
LAT - Latitude
LBG - Libreville, Gabon Ground Station
LC - LDCM Contractor
LCC - Lambert Conformal Conic or Lifecycle Cost
LCCB - Landsat Configuration Control Board
LCCR - Landsat Configuration Change Request
LCG - Landsat Coordination Group
LCGS - LDCM Contractor Ground Segment
LCMAP - Land Change Monitoring Assessment and Projection
LCSS - LDCM Contractor Space Segment
LDAP - Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
LDB - IAS Local Database
LDCC - Landsat Data Continuity Contract
LDCM - Landsat Data Continuity Mission
LDI - LPS Data Ingest or L0Ra Data Ingest
LDIF - LDAP Data Interchange Format
LDIS - LAM to DORRAN Interface System
LDPC - Low Density Parity Check
LDPS - Landsat Data Purchase System
LDRCS - LDCM Document Review Comment Spreadsheet
LDTS - LPS Data Transfer Subsystem
LEDAPS - Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System
LEI - LAM to ECS Interface
LEM - Lower Equipment Module
LEO - Low Earth Orbiting or Launch and Early Orbit
LEO&A - Launch, Early Orbit and Activation
LEO-T - Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal
LES - Log file Extraction Services
Level A - Level Zero Aggregated
LF - Line-Feed
LG - L0Ra Generator
LGAC - Landsat Global Archive Consolidation
LGGS - Landsat Global Geodetic Standard
LGN - Landsat Ground Network
LGPL - Lesser General Public License
LGS - Landsat 7 Ground System
LGSOWG - Landsat Ground Station Operations Working Group
LHC - Left-Hand Circular
LHCP - Left-Hand Circularly Polarized
LHS - Left-Hand Side or Left-Hand SLO
LIB - Library
LICS - Landsat International Communication System
LID - Landsat and LDCM Inventory Database or LSDS Inventory Database
LIFO - Last In, First Out
LIL - Landsat Inventory Loader
LIM - Landsat Inventory Management or LDCM Interface for Metadata
LIMA - Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica
LIMB - LAM Interface for Metadata and Browse
LIR - LDCM in Retrospect
LIS - Landsat Integration System or LACS Inventory System
LITAP - Landsat Intersegment Technical Assessment Panel
LL - Lower Left
LLI - LAM to LACS Interface
LLIS - LAM LPGS Interface Subsystem
LM - Labeled Mask
Lmax - Maximum Radiance
LMC - Lockheed Martin Corporation
LMCM - Launch Management Coordination Meeting
LMD - Landsat Mission Database
LMDD - Landsat Metadata Description Document
LMI - Lower Equipment Module Interface
LMMS - Lockheed Martin Missiles and Space
LMO - Landsat 9 Mission Operations
LMOC - Landsat Multi-Satellite Operations Center
LMOCRD - Landsat Multi-Satellite Operations Center Requirements Document
LMOP - Landsat Mission Operations Project
LMST - Local Mean Solar Time
LMWS - Landsat Mission Web Site
LNA - Low Noise Amplifiers
LNET - Lustre Networking
LO - Local Oscillator
LOA - Letter of Agreement
LOC - Letter of Cooperation
LOE - Level of Effort
LON - Longitude
LOOFA - Landsat 7 On-Orbit Flight Automation
LOP - Landsat Operational Procedure
LOS - Loss of Signal or Line-of-Sight
LP DAAC - Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center
LPDS - Level 1 Product Distribution System or LDCM Data Product Specification
LPGS - Level 1 Product Generation System
LPGSUI - Level 1 Product Generation Subsystem User Interface
LPO - Landsat Program Office or LSDS Program Office
LPS - Landsat 7 Processing System
LPSNG - Landsat Processing System Next Generation
LPSO - Landsat Project Science Office
LPT - Limited Performance Test
LR - Lower Right
LRD - Launch Readiness Date
LRMB - LDCM Risk Management Board
LRR - Launch Readiness Review
LRS - Landsat Remote Sensing
LRSP - Land Remote Sensing Program
LS - Launch Segment
LSAA - Landsat and Sentinel Archive and Access
LSATH - High Saturation Radiance
LSATL - Low Saturation Radiance
LSB - Least Significant Bit
LSC - Landsat Security Committee
LSCF - Landsat Solar Calibration Frame
LSDS - Land Satellites Data System
LSF - Line Spread Function
LSIMSS - LDCM Scalable Integrated Multi-Mission Support System or Landsat Scalable Integrated Multi-Mission Support System
LSO - LDCM Science Office
LSP - Launch Support Program
LSQ - Least Squares
LSQAT - Landsat Science Quality Assurance Team
LSR - Launch Support Room
LSRD - LSDS Science Research and Development
LSS - Launch Services Segment
LST - Landsat Science Team or Land Surface Temperature
LTA - Long Term Archive
LTAP - Long-Term Acquisition Plan
LTAS - Landsat Trending and Analysis System
LTI - Legacy Tape Ingest
LTO - Linear Tape Open
LTS - LACS Transcription System
LTVA - Limited Technical Vulnerability Assessment
LTWG - Landsat Technical Working Group
Ltypical - Typical Radiance
LUN - Logical Unit Number
LUT - Look-Up Table
LV - Launce Vehicle
LVDT - Linear Variable Differential Transformer
LVRR - Launch Vehicle Readiness Review
LWIR - Long Wavelength Infrared
LXR - Landsat Transfer Radiometer

m - meter
M&PCB - Materials and Processes Control Board
M&PCP - Materials and Processes Control Program
MA - Mission Archive or Multiple Access or Major Application or Mission Assurance
MAC - Media Access Control or Monitor and Control Subsystem
MACS - MSS-X Archive Conversion System or Monitor and Control Subsystem
MAD - Median Absolute Deviation
MAE - Materials Assurance Engineer
MAID - Massive Array of Idle Disks
MAM - Mission Assurance Manager
MAP - Mission Assurance Plan
MAR - Mission Assurance Requirements
MAS - MODIS Archive System
MB - Megabyte
MBO - Management by Objects
Mbps - Megabit per Second
MC - MAC Controller
MCDL - Master Configured Document List
MCDR - Mission Critical Design Review
M-CDR - MOC Critical Design Review
MCE - Mirror Control Electronics
MCM - Multi-Chip Module
MCR - Mission Concept Review
MCS - Monitor and Control Subsystem
MD - Metrics Database or Mission Data or Mission Data
MD5 - Message-Digital Algorithm 5
MDA - MacDonald, Dettwiler, and Associates
MDGLS - Mid-Decadal Global Land Survey
MDH - Mission Data Header
MDIO - Mission Data Input / Output
MDL - Metadata Loader
MDM - Mission Data Management
MDR - Mission Dress Rehearsal or Mission Definition Review
MDS - MMO Database System or Metadata Server
MDT - Metadata Target
ME - Memory Effect
MEB - Materials Engineering Branch
MEC - Metrics ETL Component
MEF - Mission Essential Function
MEOS - Multi-mission Earth Observation System
MER - Mission Equipment Room
MF - Minor Frame
mf  - minor frame
MFC - Microsoft Foundation Classes or MAC Fetch CPF
MFPS - Major Frame Processing Subsystem
MFR - Multi-Functional Receiver
MG - Metadata Generator
MGS - MODIS Ground Station or Management Server
MGT - Management Target
MHz - Megahertz
MI - Mutual Information
MIL - Materials Identification List or MAC Inventory L0Ra
MIS - Master Integrated Schedule or Management Information System
MISR - Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer
MIT - Massachusetts Institute of Technology
MJF - Major Frame
MJP - MAC Job Processor
MLC - Most Likely Case
MLH - Maximum Likelihood Estimate
MLI - MACS to LAM Interface
MLT - Mean Local Time
mm - Millimeter
mm/hr - Millimeters per Hour
MM&A - Mission Monitor & Analysis
MMA - Mission Management Analyst
MMIO - Modified Morarec Interest Operator
MMO - Mission Management Office
MMOIO - Mission Management Office Information Officer
MMOSA - MMO Security Activity
MMOSE - Mission Management Office Systems Engineer
MMR - Mission Requirements Review
MMS - MDGLS Management System or Multimission Modular Spacecraft
MO&DSD - Mission Operations and Data System Directorate
MOA - Memorandum of Agreement
MOC - Mission Operations Center
MOCRD - Mission Operations Requirement Document
MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer
MODNET - MO&DSD Operational/Development Network
MODTRAN - Moderate Resolution Transmittance atmospheric modeling software
MOE - Mission Operations Element
MOERD - Mission Operations Element Requirements Document
MOI - Moment of Inertia
MOM - Mission Operations Manager
MOP - Mission Operations Plan
MOPSS - Mission Operations Planning and Scheduling System
MOR - Mission Operations Room or Mission Operations Review
MORM - Mission Operations Readiness Manager
MOS - Mission Operations Simulation
MOTS - Mission Off-The-Shelf
MOU - Memorandum of Understanding
MOVE - Mission Operations Voice Enhancement
MOWG - Mission Operations Working Group
MP - Multi-Processor
M-PDF - MOC Preliminary Design Review
MPEG - Moving Picture Experts Group
MPLS - Multi Protocol Label Switching
MPR - Monthly Progress Review
MPS - MODIS Processing System or Mission Plan System
MPSR - Management Program Status Review
MR - Management Reserve
MRB - Milestone Review Board or Material Review Board
MRC - Metrics Reporting Component
MRLC - Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics
MRR - Mission Requirements Review
MRT - Mission Readiness Testing
MRTG - MultiRouter Traffic Grapher
ms - millisecond
MS - Multispectral
MSA - Master Schedule of Activities
msb - Most Significant Bit
MSB - Most Significant Byte
MSCD - Mirror Scan Correction Data
MSE - Mission Systems Engineering
MSFC - Marshall Space Flight Center
MSI - Multi-Spectral Instrument
M-SIR - MOC System Integration Review
MSK - Receive Antenna Horizon Mask Message
MSM - MultiService Mobility or Mission Simulations Manager or Management Switch Module or Mission Operations Center Systems Manager
MSPSP - Missile System Prelaunch Safety Data Package
MSR - Monthly Status Review
M-SRR - MOC System Requirement Review
MSS - Multispectral Scanner or Mass Storage System
MSS-A - Multispectral Scanner - Archive Format
MSS-P - Multispectral Scanner - Processed Format
MSS-X - Multispectral Scanner data, reformatted CCT-X data
MST - Mission Support Team
MTA - Metadata
MTBF - Mean Time Before Failure
MTDSS - MS and TM Data Subsetting System
MTF - Modulation Transfer Function
MTFC - Modulation Transfer Function Compensation
MTI - Matera, Italy
MTL - Level 1 Metadata
MTP - Distribution Product Metadata
MTR - Mission Transition Review
MTS - MDS Transformation Services
MTTR - Mean Time to Restore or Mean Time to Repair or Mean Time to Recovery
MTU - Maximum Transmission Unit
MUA - Materials Usage Agreement
mW - milliWatt
MWD - Moving Window Display

N/A - Not Applicable
N0 - Noise Density
NAK - Negative Acknowledgement
NARA - National Archive and Records Administration
NAS - NASA Assurance Standard or Network Attached Storage
NASA - National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Nascom - NASA Communications
NASDA - National Space Development Agency (Japan)
NAVOCEANO - Naval Oceanographic Office
MBII - National Biological Information Infrastructure
NB - Narrow Band
NBR - Normalized Burn Ratio or Navigation Base Reference
NCAS - National Carbon Accounting System
NCC - Network Control Center
NCEP - National Centers for Environmental Prediction
NCSA - National Center for Supercomputing Applications
NCT - Network Connectivity Test
NDE - Non-Destructive Examination
NDF - NLAPS Data Format
NDI - Non-Development Items
NDIA - National Defense Industrial Association
NDP - National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive (NSLRSDA) Data Package
NDPF - NASA Data Processing Facility
NDSI - Normalized Difference Snow Index
NDVI - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index
NErT - Noise Equivalent Delta Temperature
NED - Natural Elevation Data
NEDL - Noise Equivalent Detector Radiance
NEDT - Noise Equivalent Detector Temperature
NEMA - National Electrical Manufactures Association
NEN - Near Earth Network
NENUG - Near Earth Network User's Guide
NEOS - National Earth Orientation Service
NEPAG - NASA EEE Parts Assurance Group
NESDIS - National Environmental Satellite Data and Information Service
NewOps - New Operational Procedures System
NEX - NASA Earth Exchange
NFS - Network File System
NG - National Guard
NGA - National Geospatial Intelligence Agency
NGAC - National Geospatial Advisory Committee
NGST - Northrop Grumman Space Technology
NHB - NASA Handbook
NIC - Network Interface Card
NIPD - Network Interface Planning Document
NIR - Near-infrared
NISN - NASA Integrated Services Network
NIST - National Institute for Standards and Technology
NITF - National Imagery Transformation Format
NLAPS - National Land Archive Production System
NLI - National Land Imaging
NLIP - National Land Imaging Program
nm - Nanometer
NMAS - National Map Accuracy Standards
NMD - National Mapping Discipline
NMS - Network Management Software
NN - Nearest Neighbor
NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOC - NUGS Operations Concept
NOLAN - Nascom Operational Local Area Network
NOM - Network Operations Manager
NOR - NORAD Two Line Element Message
NORAD - North American Air Defense
NOVAS - Naval Definition Vector Astronomy Software
NP - Narrative Procedure
NPD - NASA Policy Directive
NPOESS - National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System
NPR - NASA Procedural Requirements
NPSL - NASA Parts Selection List
NPV - Net Present Value or Net Pulse Value
NRCA - Nonconformance Reporting and Corrective Action
NRT - Network Readiness Test
NRTL - Nationally Recognized Testing Laboratory
NRZ-L - Non-Return to Zero-Level
NRZ-M - Non-Return to Zero-Mark
NSA - National Security Agency
NSC - Norwegian Space Centre
NSDI - Normalized Snow Difference Index or National Spatial Data Infrastructure
NSG - Neustreilitz, Germany Ground Station
NSLRSDA - National Satellite Land Remote Sensing Data Archive
NSM - Network and Security Manager
NSN/NSG - Neustrelitz Ground Station (Germany)
NSPAR - Nonstandard Parts Approval Request
NSS - NASA Safety Standard
NSSDC - National Space Science Data Center
NSTC - National Science and Technology Council
NTIA - National Telecommunications and Information Administration
NTE - Not To Exceed
NTP - Network Time Protocol
NUC - Non-Uniformity Correction
NUGS - NASA-USGS Joint Ground System
NUP - North Up
NWIS - National Water Information System
NWP - Numerical Weather Prediction
NWS - National Weather Service

O&M - Operations & Maintenance
O&S - Operations & Sustaining
OA - Operational Archive or Operations Agreement or Operations Analyst
OAG - Office of Acquisitions and Grants
OAR - On-Orbit Acceptance Review
OAV - Operational Verification Assessment
OBC - Onboard Computer
OBE - Overcome By Events
OBP - On-Board Processor
OBS - Organizational Breakdown Structure
Obs-IRD - Observatory Interface Requirements Document
OC - Online Cache or Operations Concept
OCC - Operator Control Console or Occurrence
OCD - Operations Concept Document
OCI - Organization Conflict of Interest
OCIO - Office of the Chief Information Officer
ODBC - Open Database Connectivity
ODC - Other Direct Costs
ODL - Object Description Language
ODNI - Office of the Director of National Intelligence
ODOS - Order Distribution and Order Status
ODS - Order Distribution Service
OE - Operations Engineer
OEM - Original Equipment Manufacturer or Oracle Enterprise Manager
OFE - Order Fulfillment Element
OGC - Open Geospatial Consortium
OHS - Order Handler Subsystem
OIRD - Observatory Interface Requirements Document
OITL - Orbit-In-The-Life
OIV - On-orbit Initialization and Verification
OLAP - On-Line Analytical Processing
OLI - Operational Land Imager
OLI-2 - Operational Land Imager-2
OM - Operations and Maintenance
OMA - Oblique Mercator Type A
OMB - Office of Management and Budget or Oblique Mercator Type B
OMP - Operations Management Plan
OMS - Optimum Management System
OO - Orbit Oriented
OOB - Out-of-Band
OPA - Organizational Process Asset
OPM - Office of Personnel Management
OPM3 - Organizational Management Maturity Model
OPR - Office of Primary Responsibility
OPS - Operations
Ops Con - Operations Concept
OR - Operations Readiness
ORB - Object Request Broker
ORR - Operations Readiness Review
ORT - Operational Readiness Test
OQPSK - Offset Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
OS - Operating System
OSC - Orbital Science Corporation
OSHA - Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OSI - Open Systems Interconnection
OSS - Object Storage Server or Operations Support Simulations
OSSMA - Office of Systems Safety and Mission Assurance
OST - Object Storage Target
OSTP - Office of Science and Technology Policy
OTB - Over Target Baseline
OTF - Optical Transfer Function
OTS - OLI-TIRS Subsetter or Over Target Schedule
OUI - Operator User Interface
OV - Operational Verification
OVA - Operations Validation and Acceptance
OVAD - Operational Verification Acceptance Document
OVAP - Operational Verification Acceptance Period
OWB - Oracle Warehouse Browser or Oracle Warehouse Builder
OWSGUI - Oracle Web Service GUI

P3I - Preplanned Product Improvement
P&C - Project Management and Controls
P&S - Planning and Scheduling
PaaS - Platform as a Service
PAC - Partial Aperture Calibrator or Prince Albert, Canada Ground Station
PAIV - Project Acceptance and Implementation Variance
PAM - Pluggable Authentication Module
PAN - Production Acceptance Notification or Panchromatic
PAP - Primary Archive Program
PAPH - Pseudo Average Pulse Height
PAPL - Project Approved Parts List
PAR - Post Assessment Report
PASC - Partial Aperture Solar Calibrator
PB - Playback or Petabyte
PBL - Project Baseline Log
PBS - Project Breakdown Structure
PBTLM - PB X-Band Housekeeping Telemetry
PC - Personal Computer or Polyconic or Production Control or Program Charter
PCA - Physical Configuration Audit or Physical Channel Access or Point of Closest Approach
Pcache - Processing Cache
PCB - Parts Control Board or Project Control Board
PCD - Payload Correction Data
PCDS - Payload Correction Data Subsystem
PCI - Peripheral Component Interface
PCI-E or PCIe - Peripheral Component Interconnect Express
PCI-X - Peripheral Component Interconnect Extended
PCM - Pulse Code Modulation
PCP - Parts Control Plan
PCR - Project Closeout Review
PCS - Process Control Subsystem or Product Control Subsystem or Production Control Subsystem
PCSS - Program Coordinate Systems Standards
PCU - Power Control Unit
P/D - Programmable Demodulator
PD - Product Distribution or Position Description
PDA - Personal Digital Assistant
PDB - Program Decision Board
PDD - Presidential Decision Directive
PDF - Portable Document Format or Payload Data Formatter
PDI - Product Delivery Interface
PDL - Product Design Lead
PDM - Precedence Diagramming Method
PDPS - Planning and Data Processing Segment
PDR - Product Delivery Record or Preliminary Design Review
PDRD - Product Delivery Record Discrepancy
PDRM - Product Delivery Receipt Mechanism
PDS - Product Distribution System
PDU - Protocol Data Unit
PED - Personal Electronic Device or Portable Electronic Device
PER - Performance Evaluation Review or Pre-Environmental Review
PERT - Program Evaluation and Review Technique
PF - Polarization Factor
PF1 - Poker Flats 1
PFPA - Prime Focal Plan Assembly
PFR - Problem / Failure Report
PG - Product Generation
PgC - Program Charter
PgIMS - Program Integrated Master Schedule
PgMP - Program Management Plan
PGN - Polar Ground Network
PGS - Product Generation System (Generic Name for NLAPS) or Product Generation Subsystem
PgWBS - Program Work Breakdown Structure
PHA - Preliminary Hazard Analysis
PI - Primary Investigator
PIA - Project Implementation Agreement or Privacy Impact Assessment
PIB - Payload Interface Board
PICS - Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Side or Planetary Image Cartography System
PID - Process Identification
PIE - Payload Interface Electronics
PII - Personally Identifiable Information
PIL - Parts Identification List
PIMS - Project Integrated Master Schedule
PIP - Premium Internet Protocol
PIV - Personal Identity Verification
PKI - Public Key Infrastructure
PKO - Project Kick-Off
PL - Public Law
PLA - Payload Adapter
PLAR - Post Launch Assessment Review
PL-DRO - Phase Locked Dielectric Resonance Oscillator
PL/SQL - Procedural Language / Structured Query Language
PM - Phase Modulation or Program Management or Project Management
PMC - Performance Monitoring Counter
PMB - Performance Measurement Baseline
PMBOK - Project Management Book Of Knowledge
PMEF - Primary Mission Essential Function
PMI - Project Management Institute
PMMM - Program Management Maturity Model
PMO - Persistent Mission Object
PMP - Project Management Professional or Project Management Plan or Procurement Management Plan
PMPDR - Physical Media Product Delivery Record
PMPDRD - Physical Media PDR Discrepancy
PMRT - Post-Mission Readiness Testing
PMSC - Program Management Systems Committee
PMSEIT - Program Management, Systems Engineering, and Integration and Test
PMT - Performance Measurement Technique
PN - Pseudorandom Noise or Pseudo-Noise
PNG - Portable Network Graphics
PNTR - Pointer
PO - Project Owner
POA&M - Plan of Action and Milestones
POC - Point of Contact
POJO - Plain Old Java Object
POP - Point-Of-Presence or Point of Performance
POSC - Petrotechnical Open Software Corporation
POSIX - Portable Operating System Interface for Unix
PP - Planning Package
PPF - Payload Processing Facility
PPL - Preferred Parts List
PPM - Program Project Management
ppm - Parts Per Million
PPOC - Procurement Point of Contact
PPQA - Process and Product Quality Assurance
PPR - Post-Pass Report
PPS - Pulse Per Second
PR - Program Review or Problem Report or Product Request or Purchase Request
PRA - Paperwork Reduction Act or Probabilistic Risk Assessment
PRB - Problem Report Message
PRD - Project Reference Database
PRI - Priority Mask Message
PRISM - Professional Resources in Information Systems Management
PRL - Pull Remote Logs
PS - Polar Stereographic or Production Server
PSA - Pre Security Assessment
PSD - Power Spectral Density
PSF - Point Spread Function
PSGUI - Production Server Graphical User Interface
PSI - PCS Startup IAS
PSK - Phase Shift Keyed
PSLA - Project Service Level Agreement
PSM - Project Safety Manager
PSMON - Power Status Monitor
PSR - Priority/Service Request Mask File or Pre-Ship Review or Pre-Shipment Review or Program Status Review
PSU - Power Supply Unit
PTM - Principal Task Manager
PTP - Primary Transfer Program or Programmable Telemetry Processor
PTR - Post-Test Review
PTS - Project Task Structure
PUB - Publication
PUP - Perfectly Uniform Pitch
PV - Planned Value
PVCS - Polytron Version Control System
PVL - Parameter Value Language
PWA - Printed Wire Assembly
PWB - Printed Wiring Board
PWBS - Project Work Breakdown Structure
PWC - PCS Work Order Controller
PWG - PCS Work Order Generator
PWL - PCS Work Order Scheduler Lite
PWS - Project Web Site

Q - Quadrature Channel
Q1 - Quarter 1
Q1G - L1G Quality Assurance
Q1R - L1R Quality Assurance
Q2 - Quarter 2
Q3 - Quarter 3
Q4 - Quarter 4
Q&A - Quality and Accounting
QA - Quality Assurance or Quality Assessment
QAA - Quality Assurance Audit
QAS - Quality Assessment Subsystem
QB - Quality Board or Quality Band
QC - Quality Control
QCM - Quartz Crystal Microbalance
QFS - Quick File System
QMM - Landsat Quarterly Management Meeting
QMP - Quality Management Plan
QMS - Quality Management System
QOCI - Qt Oracle Call Interface
QPSK - Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
QUI - Quality Assurance User Interface
QWIP - Quantum Well Infrared Photometers
QWR - Quarterly Web Review

R&D - Research and Development
R/T - Receive/Transmit
R0C - A stage of Radiometric Processing; Radiometric Calibration
R0R - A stage of Radiometric Processing; Radiometric Artifacts Collection
R1 - Release 1
R1R - A stage of Radiometric Processing; Cosmetic Changes
R21 - Resource 21
RA - Right Ascension or Risk Assessment
RAC - Real Application Cluster or Risk Assessment Code
RAD - Radiometric
RadSim - Radiometry Simulator
RAID - Redundant Array of Independent Disks
RAM - Random Access Memory or Responsibility Assignment Matrix or Resource Allocation Matrix
RAMP - Radarsat Antarctica Mapping Project
RAS - Reliability, Availability, Serviceability
RBD - Risk Based Decision
RBS - Reflective Band Sensor or Risk Breakdown Structure
RBST - Role Based Security Training
RBV - Return Beam Vidicon
R-C - Resistor-Capacitor
RCA - Radio Corporation of America
RCA-EO - Requirements, Capabilities, and Analysis for Earth Observations
RCC - Raw Computer Compatible
RCM - Resource Configuration Manager
RCN - Revision Control Number
RCR - Remote Controlled Repository
RCS - Reaction Control System
RD - Requirements Document
RDAC - Redundant Disk Array Controller
RDB - Requirements Database Baseline
RDBMS - Related Database Management System
RDC - Remote Desktop Connection
RDCS - Raw Data Capture Subsystem
RDPS - Raw Data Processing Subsystem
RDS - Raw Data Subsetter
RDSS - RCC Data Subsetter or Raw Data Subsetting Subsystem
RE - Requirements Engineer and Responsible Engineer
REC - Recovery Time
REL - Relative
REST - Representational State Transfer
REQ - Service Request Message
RF - Radio Frequency
RFA - Request for Action
RFC - Request for Comments
RFI - Request for Information
RFID - Root File Identification
RFO - Request for Offer
RFP - Request for Proposal
RFQ - Request for Quote
RFR - Request for Record
RFS - Radio Frequency System
RG - Relative Gain
RGB - Red Green and Blue Color Value
RH - Red-High
RHC - Right-Hand Circular
RHCP - Right Hand Circularly Polarized
RHS - Right-Hand Side or Right-Hand SLO
RIDS - Review Item Discrepancies
RIM - Risk Information Management Tool
RIO - Risks, Issues, and Opportunities
RIPL - Risk Identification Prompt List
RIS24 - 24-bit Raster Image
RITSO - Regional IT Security Officer
RL - Red-Low
RLN - Resource Load Network
RLUT - Response Linearization Look Up Table
RM - Requirements Management or Risk Manager or Resource Manager
RMAN - Recovery Manager
RMB - Risk Management Board
RMD - Risk Management Database
RMF - Risk Management Framework
RMM - Risk Mitigation Maneuvers
RMP - Requirements Management Plan or Risk Management Plan
RMR - Risk Management Record
RMS - Root-Mean-Square or Risk Management System
RMSE - Root Mean Square Error
RMSEr - Radial Root Mean Square Error
RMT - Risk Management Tool
RN - Random Noise
RO - Receiving Officer
ROI - Return on Investment or Region of Interest
ROIC - Read-Out Integrated Circuit
ROLO - Robotics Lunar Observatory
ROM - Rough Order of Magnitude
RPC - Remote Procedure Call or Rational Polynomial Coefficient
RPE - Rational Publishing Engine
RPI - Rumpin, Indonesia Ground Station
RPM - Revolutions per Minute
RPS - Radiometric Processing Subsystem
RR - Readiness Review
RRAS - Routing and Remote Access Services
RRB - Reduced Resolution Browse
R-S - Reed-Solomon
RSA - Rivest-Shamin-Adleman
RSB - Remote Sensing Branch
RSD - Remote Sensing Division
RSDO or RSDP - Rapid Spacecraft Development Office
RSPP - Robotic System Protection Plan
RSR - Relative Spectral Responses
RSS - Reuse Subsystem or Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary
RT - Real Time
RTA - Roof Top Antenna
RTC - Remote Telemetry and Command Unit
RTCS - Relative Time Command Sequence
RTF - Rich Text Format
RTS - Relative Time Sequence
RTT - Round Trip Time
RTTM - Requirements-To-Test Matrix
RVM - Requirements Verification Matrix
RWA - Reaction Wheel Assembly
RX - Receive

S&O - Search and Order
S/C - Spacecraft
S/W - Software
SA - Spacecraft Analyst or Single Access or Systems Administrator or Storage and Archive Subsystem or System Architect
SAA - South Atlantic Anomaly
SA-AC - Storage Archive - Archive Cache
SaaS - Software as a Service
SAC - Satellite Application Centre (South Africa)
SADD - System Algorithm Description Document
SAG - System Administrator Guide
SAGUI - Storage and Archive Graphical User Interface
SA-IC - Storage and Archive – Internal Cache
SAIC - Science Applications International Corporation
SAM - Scan Angle Monitor or Storage Archive Manager
SAMP - Software Acquisition Management Plan
SAN - Storage Area Network
SANS - System Administration, Networking, and Security Institute
SAP - Systems Applications and Products
SA-PC - Storage Archive - Processing Cache
SAPMSO - Space Asset Protection Mission Support Office
SARR - Security Assessment Response Report
SAS - Serial Attached SCSI or Solar Array Simulator
SAT - Site Acceptance Testing
SATA - Serial Advanced Technology Attachment
SATO - Science Algorithms to Operations
SAW - Systems Analysis Workgroup
SBAF - Spectral Band Adjustment Factor
SBCG - System Build and Configuration Guide
SBG - Software Build Guide
SBM - Serena Business Manager
SBRS - Santa Barbara Remote Sensing
SBS - Subsetter System
SBU - Sensitive But Unclassified
SC - Spacecraft or Science Campaign
SCA - Sensor Chip Assembly or Snow Covered Area
SCAMA - Switching, Conferencing, and Monitoring Arrangement or Station Conferencing and Monitoring Assembly
SCC - Stress Corrosion Cracking or System Control Center
SCD - Small Conversion Device
SCDR - Spacecraft Critical Design Review
SCES - Station Contract Execution Summary
SCH - Contact Schedule Message
SCI - Software Configuration Item
SCID - Spacecraft Identifier
SCL - Signal Conditioning Unit - Lower Equipment Module
SCM - Software Configuration Management
SCN - Scan
SCP - Standard Controls Processor or Secure Copy Protocol
SCR - System Concept Review or Software Configuration Request or Standard Collection Request
SCS - Scan-Correlated Shift or Satellite Checkout Station or NOAA/IPO Space and Communications Segment
SCSI - Small Computer Software Interface
SCTR - Special Calibration Test Requirements
SD - South Dakota or Scan Direction
SDAT - Special Data Acquisition Tool
SDD - Software Design Document
SDDS - Seamless Data Distribution System
SDF - Software Development File
SDLC - System Development Life Cycle
SDLT - Super DLT
SDM - Silo Data Manager
SDMP - Software Development Management Plan
SDN - South Dakota Network
SDP - Software Development Plan or Science Data Production or Science Data Processing
SDPS - Support Data Processing Subsystem
SDR - System Design Review
SDS - Scientific Data Set
SDU - Service Data Unit
SDVF - Software Development and Validation Facility
SDW - Seamless Data Warehouse
SE - Systems Engineer or Systems Engineering
SEB - Source Evaluation Board
SED - Software Engineering Department
SEE - Single-Event Effect
SEI - Software Engineering Institute
SEIT - System Engineer Integration and Test
SEL - Single-Event Latchup or Software Engineer Lead
SELC - System Engineering Lifecycle
SelfDef - Self-Defining CMDA format
SEM - Security Engineered Machine
SEMP - Systems Engineering Management Plan
SET - Systems Engineering Team
SEU - Single Event Upset - Anomaly Event
SEV - Severity or Sun-Earth-Vehicle angle
SF - Service Framework
SFBME - Short Form Brouwer Mean Element
SFC - Scene Framing Component
SFCG - Space Frequency Coordination Group
SFFT - Short Form Functionality Testing
SFTP - SSH File Transfer Protocol
Sg/SG6 - Svaldbard Ground Station
SGDAWG - Space to Ground Data Acquisition Working Group
SGI - Silicon Graphics Incorporated or Shadnagar, India Ground Station
SGP4 - Simplified General Perturbations
SGS - Svalbard Ground Station or Svalsat Ground Station
SGT - Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies
SHA - Secure Hash Algorithm
SHC - Shutter Histogram Characterization
SHS - Second Half Scan
SHSERR - Second Half Scan Error
SI - Searchable Inventory or Space Imaging or Science Instrument or Système International
SIAT - Spectral Image Annotation Tape
SIC - Spacecraft Identifier Code
SID - Searchable Inventory Database or System ID
SIEM - Security Information and Event Management
SIFMT - Scene to Interval to File Mapping Table
SIG - Signaling
SIP - Standard Internet Protocol
SIPS - Landsat 9 Science Investigator-led Processing System
SIR - Scientific Investigations & Research or Survey Investigation and Research or Systems Integration Review
SIRCUS - Spectral Irradiance and Radiance responsively Calibrated using Uniform
SIRU - Scalable Inertial Reference Unit
SIS - Science Information System or Spacecraft Interface Simulator
SISO - Subsystem Information System Owner
SISSE - Senior Information System Security Engineer
SITL - Single Interval-In-The-Life
SITP - Software Integration Test Plan
SKMP - System Key Management Plan
SL - Scan Line
SLA - Service Level Agreement or Scan Line Artifact
SLC - Scan Line Corrector or Software Development Life Cycle
SLAM - Storage Location Allocation Manager
SLAT - Spacecraft Location and Attitude Tape
SLATE - System Level Automation Tool for Enterprises
SLD - Scan Line Data
SLI - Sustainable Land Imaging
SLL - Scan Line Length
SLO - Scan Line Offset
SLOC - Standard Lines of Code
SLP - Service Location Protocol
SLPP - Summary Level Planning Package
SLS - Scan Line Start
SM - Schedule Manager or Scan Mirror
SMA - Safety and Mission Assurance or S-Band Multiple Access
SMAP - Safety and Mission Assurance Plan
SMAT - System, Model, and Analysis Tool
SMC - Subsetter Monitor and Controllers
SMD - Stored Mission Data
SME - Scan Mirror Electronics or Subject Matter Expert
SMP - Software Maintenance Plan or Software Management Plan
SMR - Staff Management Request
SMRD - Science and Mission Requirements Document
SM RVM - Science and Mission Requirements Verification Matrix
SMS - System Management Server
SMSR - Safety and Mission Success Review
SN - Space Network
SNAS - Space Network Access System
SNMP - Simple Network Management Protocol
SNR - Signal-to-Noise Ratio
SNUG - Space Network User's Guide
SO - Search and Order
SOA - Service-Oriented Architecture or Satellite Operator Agency
SOAP - Simple Object Access Protocol
SOC - Satellite Operations Center
SOD - Seconds Of Day
SOH - State of Health
SOM - Space Oblique Mercator
SON - Statement of Need
SOO - Statement of Objectives
SOP - Standard Operating Procedure
SORN - System of Record Notice
SOS - Spacecraft/Observatory Simulator
SOW - Statement of Work
SP - Special Publication
SPAOS - Standard Product Automatic Ordering System
SPARC - Scalable Processor Architecture
SPDR - Spacecraft Preliminary Design Review
SPI - Schedule Performance Index
SPITL - Scheduling Period In The Life
SPL - Software Project Lead
SPOC - Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) Proof of Concept or Security Point of Contact
SPOT - Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (Satellite for Earth Observation)
SPR - Software Problem Report
SPSR - System Pre-Ship Review
SPVM - System Performance Verification Matrix
SPVP - System Performance Verification Plan
SQA - Software Quality Assurance
SQAP - Software Quality Assurance Plan
SQL - Structured Query Language
SQMS - Software Quality Management System
SQPSK - Staggered Quadrature Phase Shift Keying
SQRT - Square Root
SR - System Review or Surface Reflectance
sr - steradian
SRB - Schedule Review Board or Standing Review Board
SRD - System Requirements Document
SRI - Standard Robot Interface
SRLUT - Spectral Radiance Look Up Table
SRM - Silo Resource Manager
SRO - Systems Review Office
SRP - Systems Review Plan
SRR - System Readiness Review or System Requirements Review or Software Requirements Review
SRS - Software Requirements Specification or System Requirements Specification
SRT - Systems Review Team or Siracha, Thailand Ground Station
SRTM - Software Requirements Traceability Matrix or Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
SS - Space Segment or System Support or Signal Strength
SSA - S-Band Single Access
SSCL - Standard System Control List
SSD - Subsystem Design Document
SSG - System Support Group
SSH - Secure Shell
SSHGS - Secure Shell Gateway Service
SSI - Sensitive Security Information
SSIP - System Safety Implementation Plan
SSL - Secure Socket Layer
SSM - Scene Select Mechanism or Scene Select Mirror
SSoH - Stored State of Health
SSOP - Security Standard Operating Procedure
SSP - System Security Plan or Satellite Support Plan
SSPA - Solid State Power Amplifier
SSP-MSO - Space System Protection - Mission Support Office
SSPP - Systems Safety Program Plan
SSR - Solid State Recorder or Software Specification Review
SSRR - Spacecraft System Requirements Review
ST - System Test
STC - System Test Case
STDEV - Standard Deviation
STDMP - Simulated and Test Data Management Plan
STDN - Spaceflight Tracking and Data Network
STE - System Test Equipment
STESR - System Test Execution Summary Report
STF - System Transfer Function
STIG - Security Technical Implementation Guide
STIM - Stimulus
STK - StorageTek
STP - System Test Plan
STR - System Test Report or Special Task Report
STS - Scene Transmit Schedule
STSS - Synchronize to Secondary Server
STV - Spacecraft Transportation Vechicle
SUM - Summary
SUN - Sun Microsystems, Inc.
SUI - Subsetter Operator User Interface
SV - Space Vehicle, Schedule Variance, or Subversion
SvalSat - Svalbard Satellite Station
SVN - Sun-Vehicle-Normal angle or Subversion
SVT - Site Verification Test
SVVP - System Verification and Validation Plan
SW - Switch or Software
SWD - Software Development
SWIR - Short Wavelength Infrared
SWOT - Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat
SZA - Solar Zenith Angle

T - Temperature
T1 - Tower 1
T2 - Tower 2
T382 - Triangular 382
T&A - Trending and Analysis or Trending & Archive
T&C - Telemetry and Command
T/V - Thermal/Vacuum
TAI - International Atomic Time
TAMR - Telemetry Archive Metrics Report
TAP - Technical Assessment Panel
TAR - Tape Archiver
TAT - Turn-Around-Time
TB - Terabyte
TBC - To Be Confirmed
TBD - To Be Determined
TBR - To Be Resolved or To Be Reviewed or To Be Refined
TBS - To Be Submitted or To Be Supplied or To Be Specified or To Be Scheduled
TC0AOS - TIRS Collection 0 Automatic Ordering System
TC1AOS - TIRS Collection 1 Automatic Ordering System
TC - Test Case
TCDC - Total Cloud Cover
TDEA - Triple Data Encryption Algorithm
TCP - Transmission Control Protocol or Technology Control Plan
TCPI - To Complete Performance Index
TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
TCXO - Temperature-Compensated Crystal Oscillator
TDF - Tracking Data Formatter or Time-Dependent Factor
TDI - Time Delay Integration
TDR - Test Discrepancy Report
TDRS - Tracking and Data Relay Satellite
TDRSS - Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System
TDT - Terrestrial Dynamical Time
TDY - Temporary Duty
TE - Test Engineer
TEM - Technical Exchange Meeting
TERSS - Tasmanian Earth Resources Satellite Station Consortium
TESR - Test Execution Summary Report
TFA - Two-Factor Authentication
TFF - TIRS Free Flyer
tHC - The Hammers Company
TIC - Trusted Internet Connection
TID - Total Ionizing Dose
TIFF - Tagged Image File Format
TIM - Technical Interchange Meeting
TIR - Thermal Infrared
TIRS - Thermal Infrared Sensor or Thermal Infrared Scanner
TIRS-2 - Thermal Infrared Sensor -2
TIS - Thermal Infrared Sensor
TLE - Two-Line Element
TLM - Telemetry
TLS - Transport Layer Security
TM - Thematic Mapper or Traverse Mercator or Task Manager
TM-A - Thematic Mapper - Archive Format
TMACS - Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner Archive Conversion System
TMIAS - Thematic Mapper Image Assessment System
TML - Total Mass Loss
TM-R - Thematic Mapper - Raw Format
TMR - Thermal Mapper Raw
TMS - Training Management System
TMSR - TSSC Monthly Status Report
TMSS - TM Subsetter
TNOS - Tromoso Network Operations Centre
TNS - Transport Network Substrate
TO - Task Order or Terrain Occlusion
TOA - Top of Atmosphere
TOR - Terms of Reference
TP - Task Plan
TPL - Telemetry Packetization Layer
TPM - Technical Performance Measures
TPS - Test Procedure Specification
TQCM - Thermoelectric Quartz Crystal Microbalanc
TRAM - Tracking, Routing, and Metrics
TRD - Technical Requirements Document
TRN - Technical Redirection Notice
TRR - Test Readiness Review
TRT - Transition Readiness Test
TSC - Thermal Control Subsystem
TSI - Honeywell Technology Solutions Inc.
TSR - Technical Service Request
TSSC - Technical Support Services Contract
TST - Technical Support Team
TT - Terrestrial Time
TT&C - Telemetry, Tracking, and Control
TT&E - Test, Training, and Exercise
TTF - TIRS Test Facility
TTL - Transistor-Transistor Logic
TTMS - TSSC Task Management System
TTOR - Transition To Operations Review
TTPs - Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures
TURFTS - TDRS Users RF Test Set
TUTR - Tunable Universal Track Receiver
TVAC - Thermal Vacuum
TWITL - Total WRS-2 In The Life
TWM - Task and Work Management
TWTA - Traveling-Wave Tube Amplifier

U/C - Up Converter
U/L - Uplink
U/P - Uplink Processor
UAC - User Account Control
UAF - University of Alaska, Fairbanks
UAR - Update as Required
UB - Undistributed Budget
UDP - Upper Data Point or User Datagram Protocol
UDT - UDP Data Transfer
UG - User's Guide
uhd - User's Home Directory
UI - User Interface
UIC - User Interface Compile
UID - Unique Identifier
UIS - USGS Inventory Server
UL - Upper Left
UM - Unified Messaging
UML - Unified Modeling Language
UNEP - United Nations Environment Programme
UNIX - Bell Laboratories trademark for operating system language and time sharing
unixODBC - Unix Open Database Connectivity
UP - User Portal System
UPE - User Portal Element
UPS - Uninterruptible Power Supply or Universal Polar Stereographic
UQPSK - Unbalanced Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying
UR - Upper Right or User Request
URL - Uniform Resource Locator
URP - User Request Parameters
URS - User Registration System
US - United States
USAF - United States Air Force
USB - Universal Serial Bus
USC - United States Code
USDA - U.S. Department of Agriculture
USG - U.S. Government
USGS - U.S. Geological Survey
USML - United States Munitions List
USNO - U.S. Naval Observatory
USPS - U.S. Postal Service
USSTRATCOM - U.S. Strategic Command
UT - Universal Time or Unit Test
UT1 - UTC Corrected
UTC - Universal Time Code or Coordinated Universal Time
UTM - Universal Transverse Mercator

V&V - Verification and Validation
VA - Veteran Administration
VAC - Variance at Completion
VAFB - Vandenburg Air Force Base
VAP - Value Added Processor
VAR - Value-Added Resellers or Variance Analysis Report
VC - Virtual Channel
VC63 - Virtual Channel 63
VCA - Virtual Channel Access
VCDU - Virtual Channel Data Unit
VCID - Virtual Channel Identifier or Virtual Channel Identification
VCLC - Virtual Channel Link Control
VDD - Version Description Document
VDP - Validation Data Products
VER - Version
VF - Valley Forge
VIIRS - Visible Infrared Imager / Radiometer Suite
VIS - Visual Information Systems
VisID - Visual Identification
VLAN - Virtual Local Area Network
VLUT - Vendor Look Up Table
VM - Version Manager
VMS - Virtual Memory Storage
VNIR - Visible and Near Infrared
VO - Verification Owner
VOI - Value of Information
VOIP - Voice Over Internet Protocol
VPN - Virtual Private Network
VQA - Visual Quality Assurance
VRM - Verification Requirements Matrix
VRP - Video Reference Pixel
VRS - Vertical Resampling Space
VSWIR - Visible to Short Wavelength Infrared
VTL - Verification Tracking Log
VTP - Verification Test Procedures
VVP - Verification and Validation Plan

W3C - World Wide Web Consortium
WA - Work Authorization
WAD - Work Authorization Document
WAN - Wide Area Network
WB - Wideband
WBDR - Wideband Downlink Report
WBM - Wide-Band Module
WBS - Work Breakdown Structure
WBV - Wide Band Video
WBVT - Wide Band Video Tape
WC - Worst Case
WCS - Web Coverage Services
WDCD - Wideband Data Capture Device
WELD - Web-Enabled Landsat Data
WFS - Web Feature Services
WG - Working Group
WGCV - Working Group for Calibration and Validation
WGS - World Geodetic System or Wallops Ground Station
WGS84 - World Geodetic System 1984
WILMA - Wide Long Term Multi-Satellite Archive
WIP - Work In Progress
WITL - WRS2-In-The-Life
WLS - Weighted Least Square
WMS - Web Mapping Services
WO - Work Order
WORS - Wallops Orbital Tracking Station
WOTIS - Wallops Orbital Tracking Information Systems
WP - Work Plan or Work Package
WPS - Wallops Ground Station
WR - Western Range
WRS - Worldwide Reference System
WRS-2 - Worldwide Reference System-2
WRS2TT - Worldwide Reference System-2 to Time Translation
WSC - White Sands Complex
WSDL - Web Service Definition Language
WSGT - White Sands (NASA) Ground Terminal
WS-I - Web Services Interoperability
WVTCS - Wideband Video Tape Conversion System
WWW - World Wide Web

XIB - Transmitter Interface Board
XML - Extensible Markup Language
XS - Multispectral SPOT Sensor
XSD - XML Schema Definition
XTX - X-Band Transmitter

YGC - Yaw Gyro Compassing
YH- Yellow-High
YL - Yellow-Low
YSF - Yaw Steering Frame
YTD - Year-To-Date

Z - Zulu time (same as GMT)
ZB - Zettabyte
ZFS - Zettabyte File System

0R - Zero Reformatted Data
6H - Band 6 - high gain
6L - Band 6 - low gain





Landsat represents the world's longest continuously acquired collection of space-based moderate-resolution land remote sensing data. Four decades of imagery provides a unique resource for those who work in agriculture, geology, forestry, regional planning, education, mapping, and global change research. Landsat images are also invaluable for emergency response and disaster relief.


Contact Us

Landsat Updates

The Landsat Update is an informal communication tool, prepared periodically and distributed electronically to USGS Landsat partners, to provide information about Landsat activities and related topics of interest.

Accessibility FOIA Privacy Policies and Notices logo U.S. Department of the Interior | U.S. Geological Survey
Page Contact Information: Ask Landsat
Page Last Modified: 06/22/17 05:09 pm