The USGS is developing research-quality, applications-ready, Level-2 and Level-3 science products derived from Landsat Level-1 data, which can be used to monitor, assess, and project how changes in land use, land cover, and land condition affect people and nature.
Landsat Level-2 Science Products are time-series observational data of sufficient length, consistency, and continuity to record effects of climate change:
Surface Reflectance (SR) - the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected from Earth's surface to the Landsat sensor.
Surface Temperature (ST) - a measure of how much heat is radiated from Earth's surface.
SR and ST data serve as input to Landsat Level-3 Science Products, which represent specific geophysical and biophysical properties of the land surface and contain parameters derived from systematic long-term measurements collected by satellite and aircraft platforms as well as in situ observational networks:
Dynamic Surface Water Extent (DSWE) - a measure of the amount of non-ocean area covered by water.
fractional Snow Covered Area (fSCA) - a measure of the per-pixel snow cover within an area.
Burned Area (BA) - a measure that identifies burned areas regardless of ecosystem.
Landsat image mosaics over the conterminous United States created using Landsat 8 Level-1 data (left) and Landsat 8 Surface Reflectance data (right). Images were created in December 2014.
Currently, Surface Reflectance data and Surface Reflectance-derived spectral indices for most Landsat scenes acquired from August 1982 to present are available. Surface Temperature, and Level-3 Dynamic Surface Water Extent, fractional Snow Covered Area (fSCA), and Burned Area products will become available as they complete development.
Landsat Science Products Metadata contain significant amounts of information that can be used to locate specific data files in the archive inventory, and inform users of certain data product characteristics. The metadata files may vary based on which interface is being used to order the product.
Lansdat Surface Reflectance Quality Assessment (QA) bands provide users an indication of whether the integrity of Surface Reflectance data have been affected by instrument artifacts, production software updates, or atmospheric conditions.
Processing requests for Surface Reflectance and Surface Reflectance-derived spectral indices can be submitted at no charge. The Landsat Science Products Access page provides information on the ordering interfaces.
Visit the Landsat Science Products News Archive or the Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center Science Processing Architecture (ESPA) On-demand interface for updates to Landsat science products.